Organization of the Body
Check Your Understanding
Joe went to the emergency room where he complained of
severe pains in the lower right quadrant of his abdomen.
What might be his problem?
Of the uterus, small intestine, spinal cord, and heart, which
is/are in the dorsal body cavity?
When you rub your cold hands together, the friction
between them results in heat that warms your hands. Why
doesn’t warming friction result during movements of the
heart, lungs, and digestive organs?
For answers, see Appendix H.
Middle ear cavities.
Te middle ear cavities in the skull lie
just medial to the eardrums. Tese cavities contain tiny
bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing recep-
tors in the inner ears.
ve-al) cavities are joint cav-
ities. Tey are enclosed within ﬁbrous capsules that surround
freely movable joints of the body (such as the elbow and knee
joints). Like the serous membranes, membranes lining syno-
vial cavities secrete a lubricating ﬂuid that reduces friction as
the bones move across one another.
(a) Nine regions delineated by four planes
Ascending colon of
of large intestine
of large intestine
Initial part of
(b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs
The nine abdominopelvic regions.
the superior transverse plane is just
inferior to the ribs; the inferior transverse plane is just superior to the hip bones; and the
parasagittal planes lie just medial to the nipples.
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An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of body structures and their relationships.
Physiology is the science of how body parts function.
Topics of Anatomy
Major subdivisions of anatomy include gross anatomy,
microscopic anatomy, and developmental anatomy.
Topics of Physiology
±ypically, physiology concerns the functioning of speciﬁc organs
or organ systems. Examples include cardiac physiology, renal
physiology, and muscle physiology.
Physiology is explained by chemical and physical principles.
Complementarity of Structure and Function
Anatomy and physiology are inseparable: What a body can do
depends on the unique architecture of its parts. Tis principle is
called the complementarity of structure and function.