Sympathetic nerve ﬁbers that cause the contraction
of smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels, thereby regulating blood
) Blood vessels that return blood toward the heart from the
Pertaining to the front; anterior.
(1) Paired, inferiorly located heart chambers that function as
the major blood pumps; (2) cavities in the brain.
ūl) A small vein.
Vertebral column (spine)
tĕ-brul) Formed of a number of indi-
vidual bones called vertebrae and two composite bones (sacrum and
sĭ-kul) A small liquid-ﬁlled sac or bladder.
Transport of large particles and macromolecules into
or out of a cell or between its compartments in membrane-bound sacs.
Mature ovarian follicle.
An enlarged area at the beginning of a canal, i.e., inner ear,
us) One of the ﬁngerlike projections of the small intestinal
mucosa that tremendously increase its surface area for absorption.
er-al) Pertaining to an internal organ of the body or the in-
ner part of a structure.
Type of smooth muscle; its cells contract as a unit and
rhythmically, are electrically coupled by gap junctions, and o±en exhibit
spontaneous action potentials. Also called unitary smooth muscle.
Visceral organs (viscera)
A group of internal organs housed in the ven-
tral body cavity.
sah) ²e part of the double-layered membrane
that lines the outer surfaces of organs within the ventral body cavity.
ĭ-te) A measurement of thickness (stickiness) of a ﬂuid.
²e ﬁeld of view seen when the head is still.
Vital capacity (VC)
²e volume of air that can be expelled from the
lungs by forcible expiration a±er the deepest inspiration; total exchange-
Includes pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body
Organic compounds required by the body in minute amounts.
Mucosal folds that function in voice production (speech);
also called the true vocal cords.
An acid that can be eliminated by the lungs; carbonic acid
is converted to CO
, which diﬀuses into the alveoli.
Muscle under strict nervous control; skeletal muscle.
Voluntary nervous system
²e somatic nervous system.
vuh) Female external genitalia.
ē-an) A process of disintegration of an
axon that occurs when it is crushed or severed and cannot receive nutri-
ents from the cell body.
White substance of the central nervous system; myelin-
ated nerve ﬁbers.
Tissue gra± taken from another animal species.
(yōk) One of the extraembryonic membranes; involved in early
blood cell formation.
gōt) Fertilized egg.
Proteolytic enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
²e movement of ﬁltrate components from the
renal tubules into the blood.
²e movement of substances (such as drugs, urea,
excess ions) from blood into ﬁltrate.
An abnormal growth of cells; a swelling; may be cancerous.
nĭ-kah) A covering or tissue coat; membrane layer.
ser) Lesion or erosion of the mucous membrane, such as gas-
tric ulcer of stomach.
lĭ-kul) Structure bearing arteries and veins con-
necting the placenta and the fetus.
lĭ-kus) Navel; marks site where umbilical cord was
attached in fetal stage.
Neuron in which embryological fusion of the two pro-
cesses leaves only one process extending from the cell body.
rah-sil) A smaller, single-ring base (a pyrimidine) found
ah) Main nitrogen-containing waste excreted in urine.
ter) Tube that carries urine from kidney to bladder.
thrah) Canal through which urine passes from the bladder
to outside the body.
²e nitrogenous waste product of nucleic acid metabolism;
component of urine.
A smooth, collapsible, muscular sac that stores urine
System primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and
acid-base balance and removal of nitrogenous wastes.
ter-in) Tube through which the ovum is transported to
the uterus. Also called fallopian tube.
ter-us) Hollow, thick-walled organ that receives, retains, and
nourishes fertilized egg; site where embryo/fetus develops.
vu-lah) Tissue tag hanging from so± palate.
Preparation that provides artiﬁcially acquired active immunity.
²in-walled tube extending from the cervix to the body exterior;
o±en called the birth canal.
lens) Outermost electron shell (energy level) of an
atom that contains electrons.
Knoblike swellings of certain autonomic axons containing
mitochondria and synaptic vesicles.
) A duct; vessel.
tah) Capillary branches that supply nephron
loops in the medulla region of the kidney.
Pertaining to blood vessels or richly supplied with blood vessels.
Immediate response to blood vessel injury; results in
shun) Narrowing of blood vessels.
shun) Relaxation of the smooth muscles of the
blood vessels, producing dilation.
shun) Intermittent contraction or relaxation of
the precapillary sphincters, resulting in a staggered blood ﬂow when tis-
sue needs are not extreme.
ter) Brain area concerned with regulation
of blood vessel resistance.