Condition of rapid and irregular or out-of-phase heart con-
brin) Fibrous insoluble protein formed during blood clotting.
o-jin) A soluble blood protein that is converted to
insoluble ﬁbrin during blood clotting.
Process that removes unneeded blood clots when healing
bro-blast) Young, actively mitotic cell that forms the ﬁbers
of connective tissue.
Te most compressible type of cartilage; resistant to
stretch. Forms vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages.
bro-sīt) Mature ﬁbroblast; maintains the matrix of ﬁbrous
types of connective tissue.
Proliferation of ﬁbrous connective tissue called scar tissue.
Bones joined by ﬁbrous tissue; no joint cavity is present.
A plasma-derived ﬂuid that is processed by the renal tubules to
Passage of a solvent and dissolved substances through a mem-
brane or ﬁlter.
A burn in which only the epidermis is damaged.
sher) (1) A groove or cle±; (2) the deepest depressions or
inward folds on the brain.
a-ter) Muscle that immobilizes one or more bones, allowing
other muscles to act from a stable base.
lum) Long, whiplike cellular extension containing
microtubules; propels sperm and some single-celled eukaryotes.
shun) Movement that decreases the angle of the joint, e.g.,
bending the knee from a straight to an angled position.
Flexor (withdrawal) reﬂex
Reﬂex initiated by a painful stimulus (actual
or perceived); causes automatic withdrawal of the threatened body part
from the stimulus.
Fluid mosaic model
A depiction of the structure of the membranes of a
cell as phospholipid bilayers in which proteins are dispersed.
lih-kul) (1) Ovarian structure consisting of a developing egg
surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells; (2) colloid-containing
structure of the thyroid gland; (3) B cell–rich region in lymphoid tissue.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Hormone produced by the ante-
rior pituitary that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and
sperm production in males.
) Fibrous membranes at the angles of cranial
bones that accommodate brain growth in the fetus and infant.
men) Hole or opening in a bone or between body cavities.
Anterior portion of the brain consisting of
the telencephalon and the diencephalon.
Cellular portion of blood.
ah) A depression, o±en an articular surface.
ve-ah) A pit.
A break in a bone.
Highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can
scramble the structure of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Frontal (coronal) plane
Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the
body or an organ into anterior and posterior parts.
Te ﬁxed point on which a lever moves when a force is applied.
dus) Base of an organ; part farthest from the opening of the
organ. For example, the posterior wall of the eye.
tro-jenz) Hormones that stimulate female secondary sex
characteristics; female sex hormones.
ah) Normal respiratory rate and rhythm.
Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
Te volume of oxy-
gen required a±er exercise to replenish stores of O
, A²P, creatine phos-
phate, and glycogen and oxidize the lactic acid formed during exercise.
Also called oxygen debt.
Exchange (displacement) reaction
Chemical reaction in which bonds are
both made and broken; atoms become combined with diﬀerent atoms.
Ability to respond to stimuli.
Excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling
Sequence of events by which
transmission of an action potential along the sarcolemma leads to the
sliding of myoﬁlaments.
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
Depolarizing graded poten-
tial in a postsynaptic neuron.
shun) Elimination of waste products from the body.
Chemical reaction that releases energy, e.g., a cata-
bolic or oxidative reaction.
so-krin) Glands that have ducts through which
their secretions are carried to a particular site.
sis) Mechanism by which substances are moved
from the cell interior to the extracellular space as a secretory vesicle fuses
with the plasma membrane.
Amino acid–specifying informational sequences (separated by
introns) in the genes of higher organisms.
Movement that increases the angle of a joint, e.g., straighten-
ing a ﬂexed knee.
tor) Sensory receptor that responds to
stimuli from the external world.
Extracellular ﬂuid (ECF)
Internal ﬂuid located outside cells; includes
interstitial ﬂuid, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal ﬂuid.
Nonliving material in connective tissue consisting
of ground substance and ﬁbers that separates the living cells.
to-le) Premature heart contraction.
sik) Of external origin.
Extrinsic eye muscles
Te six skeletal muscles that attach to and move
Passive transport process used by certain large or
charged molecules (e.g., glucose, Na
) that are unable to pass through
the plasma membrane unaided. Involves movement through channels or
movement facilitated by a membrane carrier.
e-ah) Layers of ﬁbrous tissue covering and separating muscle.
ĭ-kl) Bundle of nerve or muscle ﬁbers bound together by
Linear chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbon
chains) with an organic acid group at one end. A constituent of fat.
sēz) Material discharged from the bowel; composed of food
residue, secretions, bacteria.
es-tra-tid) Pierced with one or more small openings.
Fusion of the sperm and egg nuclei.
Developmental stage extending from the ninth week of develop-
ment to birth.
A slender threadlike structure or ﬁlament.