do-derm) Embryonic germ layer; forms the lining of the
digestive tube and its associated structures.
ĕ-nŭs) Originating or produced within the organ-
ism or one of its parts.
tre-um) Mucous membrane lining of the
e-um) Tin connective tissue surrounding
each muscle cell.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
nous network of tubular or saclike channels in the cytoplasm of a cell.
te-um) Connective tissue membrane covering in-
ternal bone surfaces.
le-um) Single layer of simple squamous cells
that line the walls of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.
Te capacity to do work; may be stored (potential energy) or in
action (kinetic energy).
Energy liberated during food oxidation.
Sum of energy lost as heat, as work, and as fat or glyco-
zīm) A protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up a
o-ﬁl) Granular white blood cell whose granules
readily take up an acid stain called eosin.
dĭ-mul) A type of CNS supporting cell; lines the
central cavities of the brain and spinal cord.
mis) Superﬁcial layer of the skin; composed of kera-
tinized stratiﬁed squamous epithelium.
dĭ-mis) Tat portion of the male duct system in
which sperm mature. Empties into the ductus (or vas) deferens.
Area between the bony vertebrae and the dura mater of
the spinal cord.
is) Elastic cartilage at the back of the throat; covers
the opening of the larynx during swallowing.
Abnormal electrical discharges of groups of brain
neurons, during which no other messages can get through.
e-um) Sheath of ﬁbrous connective tissue sur-
rounding a muscle.
rin) Chief hormone produced by the adrenal me-
dulla. Also called adrenaline.
e-ul) Plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction
of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a
ĭ-sis) Te end of a long bone, attached to the shaF.
Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms the roof
of the third ventricle with the pineal gland extending from its posterior
Epithelium (epithelial tissue)
le-ul) Pertaining to a primary tissue
that covers the body surface, lines its internal cavities, and forms glands.
ro-sīts) Red blood cells.
sis) Process of erythrocyte formation.
ĕ-tin) Hormone that stimulates
production of red blood cells.
ah-gus) Muscular tube extending from the laryngo-
pharynx through the diaphragm to join the stomach; collapses when not
involved in food propulsion.
rin) Sweat glands abundant on the palms, soles of
feet, and the forehead.
to-derm) Embryonic germ layer; forms the epidermis of
the skin and its derivatives, and nervous tissues.
mah) Abnormal increase in the amount of interstitial ﬂuid;
ter) Organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by
er-ent) Carrying away or away from, especially a nerve ﬁber
that carries impulses away from the central nervous system.
Cartilage with abundant elastic ﬁbers; more ﬂexible
than hyaline cartilage.
±iber formed from the protein elastin, which gives a rub-
bery and resilient quality to the matrix of connective tissue.
Energy formed by the movement of charged particles
across cell membranes.
record of the electrical activity of the heart.
Te combined diﬀerence in concentration
and charge; inﬂuences the distribution and direction of diﬀusion of ions.
record of the electrical activity of nerve cells in the brain.
tro-līt) Chemical substances, such as salts, acids, and
bases, that ionize and dissociate in water and are capable of conducting
an electrical current.
Refers to the balance between input and output of
salts (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium) in the body.
Emitted photons (wave packets) of energy,
e.g., light, X ray, infrared.
Negatively charged subatomic particle; orbits the atom’s
Electron shells (energy levels)
Regions of space that consecutively sur-
round the nucleus of an atom.
One of a limited number of unique varieties of matter that
composes substances of all kinds; e.g., carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
bo-lizm) Obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus
(blood clot, fatty mass, bubble of air, or other debris) ﬂoating in the blood.
bre-o) Developmental stage extending from fertilization to
the end of the eighth week.
Reﬂexive emptying of the stomach through the esophagus and
pharynx; also known as vomiting.
tis) Inﬂammation of the brain.
Chemical reaction that absorbs energy, e.g., an
de-um) Endothelial membrane that lines the
interior of the heart.
dral) Embryonic formation of
bone by the replacement of calciﬁed cartilage; most skeletal bones are
formed by this process.
do-krin) Ductless glands that empty their hor-
monal products directly into the blood.
Body system that includes internal organs that secrete
sis) Means by which fairly large extracellular
molecules or particles enter cells, e.g., phagocytosis, pinocytosis,