and increasing risk for cardiovascular disease. Men experience
andropause with milder signs and symptoms of testosterone
During menopause, ovulation and menstruation cease. Hot
ﬂashes and mood changes may occur. Postmenopausal events
include atrophy of the reproductive organs, bone mass loss,
(Some questions have more than one correct answer. Select the best
answer or answers from the choices given.)
Te structures that draw an ovulated oocyte into the female duct
Te usual site of embryo implantation is
the uterine tube,
the peritoneal cavity,
Te male homologue of the female clitoris is
the penile urethra,
Which of the following is correct relative to female anatomy?
the vaginal oriﬁce is the most dorsal of the three openings
in the perineum,
the urethra is between the vaginal oriﬁce
and the anus,
the anus is between the vaginal oriﬁce and the
the urethra is the more ventral of the two oriﬁces in
Secondary sex characteristics are
present in the embryo,
a result of male or female sex hormones increasing in amount
the testis in the male and the ovary in the female,
not subject to withdrawal once established.
Which of the following produces the male sex hormones?
developing follicles of
interstitial endocrine cells.
Which will occur as a result of nondescent of the testes?
sex hormones will not be circulated in the body,
have no means of exit from the body,
inadequate blood supply
will retard the development of the testes,
viable sperm will not
Te normal diploid number of human chromosomes is
Relative to diﬀerences between mitosis and meiosis, choose
the statements that apply
to events of meiosis.
produces two daughter cells,
occurs throughout life,
chromosomal number by half,
synapsis and crossover of
Match the key choices with the descriptive phrases below.
Hormones that directly regulate the ovarian cycle
Chemicals in males that inhibit the hypothalamic-
Hormone that makes the cervical mucus viscous
Potentiates the activity of testosterone on
In females, exerts feedback inhibition on the
hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
Stimulates the secretion of testosterone
Te menstrual cycle can be divided into three continuous
phases. Starting from the ﬁrst day of the cycle, their consecutive
menstrual, proliferative, secretory,
secretory, menstrual, proliferative,
proliferative, menstrual, secretory,
Spermatozoa are to seminiferous tubules as oocytes are to
Which of the following does not add a secretion that makes a
major contribution to semen?
Te corpus luteum is formed at the site of
Te sex of a child is determined by
the sex chromosome
contained in the sperm,
the sex chromosome contained
in the oocyte,
the number of sperm fertilizing the oocyte,
the position of the fetus in the uterus.
FSH is to estrogen as estrogen is to
A drug that “reminds the pituitary” to produce gonadotropins
might be useful as
an abortion stimulant.
Short Answer Essay Questions
Why is the term
more applicable to males than
Describe the major structural (and functional) regions of a sperm.
Oogenesis in the female results in one functional gamete—the
egg, or ovum. What other cells are produced? What is the
signiﬁcance of this rather wasteful type of gamete production—
that is, production of a single functional gamete instead of four, as
seen in males?
Describe the events and possible consequences of menopause.
Deﬁne menarche. What does it indicate?
±race the pathway of a sperm from the male testes to the uterine
tube of a female.
In menstruation, the stratum functionalis is shed from the
endometrium. Explain the hormonal and physical factors
responsible for this shedding. (Hint: See Figure 27.22.)
Both the epithelium of the vagina and the cervical glands of the
uterus help prevent the invasion and spread of vaginal pathogens.
Explain how each of these mechanisms works.
Some anatomy students were saying that the bulbo-urethral
glands of males act like city workers who come around and clear
parked cars from the street before a parade. What did they mean
by this analogy?
A man swam in a cold lake for an hour and then noticed that his
scrotum was shrunken and wrinkled. His ﬁrst thought was that
he had lost his testicles. What had really happened?
and Clinical Application
Gina Marciano, a 44-year-old mother of eight children, visited
her physician complaining of a “bearing down” sensation in
her pelvis, low backache, and urinary incontinence. A vaginal
examination showed that the external os of her cervix was just
inside the vaginal oriﬁce and her perineum exhibited large