952
UNIT 4
Maintenance of the Body
24
20.
What is the harmful result when excessive amounts of fats are
burned for energy? Name two conditions that might lead to this
result.
21.
Make a flowchart that indicates the pivotal intermediates through
which glucose can be converted to fat.
22.
Distinguish between the role of HDLs and that of LDLs.
23.
List some factors that influence plasma cholesterol levels. Also list
the sources and fates of cholesterol in the body.
24.
What is meant by “body energy balance,” and what happens if the
balance is not precise?
25.
Explain the effect of the following on metabolic rate: thyroxine
levels, eating, body surface area, muscular exercise, emotional
stress, starvation.
26.
Explain the terms “core” and “shell” relative to body temperature
balance. What serves as the heat-transfer agent from one to the
other?
27.
Compare and contrast mechanisms of heat loss with mechanisms
of heat promotion, and explain how these mechanisms determine
body temperature.
Critical Thinking
and Clinical Application
Questions
1.
Calculate the number of ATP molecules that can be harvested
during the complete oxidation of an 18-carbon fatty acid. (Take a
deep breath and think about it—you can do it.)
2.
Every year dozens of elderly people are found dead in their
unheated apartments and listed as victims of hypothermia. What
is hypothermia, and how does it kill? Why are the elderly more
susceptible to hypothermia than the young?
3.
Frank Moro has been diagnosed as having severe atherosclerosis
and high blood cholesterol levels. He is told that he is at risk for a
stroke or a heart attack. First, what foods would you suggest that
he avoid like the plague? What foods would you suggest he add or
substitute? What activities would you recommend?
4.
In the 1940s, some physicians prescribed low doses of a chemical
called dinitrophenol (DNP) to help patients lose weight. ±is
drug therapy was abandoned a²er a few patients died. DNP
uncouples the chemiosmotic machinery. Explain how this causes
weight loss.
5.
While attempting to sail solo from Los Angeles to Tahiti, Simon
encountered a storm that marooned him on an uninhabited
island. He was able, using his ingenuity and a pocket knife, to
obtain plenty of fish to eat, and roots were plentiful. However, the
island was barren of fruits and soon his gums began to bleed and
he started to develop several infections. Analyze his problem.
6.
Gregor, a large beefy man, came home from the doctor’s office
and complained to his wife that his blood tests “were bad.” He
told her that the doctor said he would have to give up some of his
steaks and butter. He went on to mourn the fact that he would
have to start eating more cottage cheese and olive oil instead.
What kind of problem was revealed by his “bad” blood tests?
How should his wife respond to his choice of food substitutes and
why? What foods should she suggest?
4.
Which of the following best defines cellular respiration?
(a)
intake
of carbon dioxide and output of oxygen by cells,
(b)
excretion of
waste products,
(c)
inhalation of oxygen and exhalation of carbon
dioxide,
(d)
oxidation of substances by which energy is released
in usable form to the cells.
5.
What is formed during aerobic respiration when electrons are
passed down the electron transport chain?
(a)
oxygen,
(b)
water,
(c)
glucose,
(d)
NADH
1
H
1
.
6.
Metabolic rate is relatively low in
(a)
youth,
(b)
physical exercise,
(c)
old age,
(d)
fever.
7.
In a temperate climate under ordinary conditions, the greatest
loss of body heat occurs through
(a)
radiation,
(b)
conduction,
(c)
evaporation,
(d)
none of the above.
8.
Which of the following is not a function of the liver?
(a)
glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis,
(b)
synthesis of
cholesterol,
(c)
detoxification of alcohol and drugs,
(d)
synthesis
of glucagon,
(e)
deamination of amino acids.
9.
Amino acids are essential (and important) to the body for all
the following except
(a)
production of some hormones,
(b)
production of antibodies,
(c)
formation of most structural
materials,
(d)
as a source of quick energy.
10.
A person has been on a hunger strike for seven days. Compared
to normal, he has
(a)
increased release of fatty acids from adipose
tissue, and ketosis,
(b)
elevated glucose concentration in the
blood,
(c)
increased plasma insulin concentration,
(d)
increased
glycogen synthase (enzyme) activity in the liver.
11.
Transamination is a chemical process by which
(a)
protein is
synthesized,
(b)
an amine group is transferred from an amino
acid to a keto acid,
(c)
an amine group is cleaved from the amino
acid,
(d)
amino acids are broken down for energy.
12.
±ree days a²er removing the pancreas from an animal, the
researcher finds a persistent increase in
(a)
acetoacetic acid
concentration in the blood,
(b)
urine volume,
(c)
blood glucose,
(d)
all of the above.
13.
Hunger, appetite, obesity, and physical activity are interrelated.
±us,
(a)
hunger sensations arise primarily from the stimulation
of receptors in the stomach and intestinal tract in response to
the absence of food in these organs;
(b)
obesity, in most cases,
is a result of the abnormally high enzymatic activity of the fat-
synthesizing enzymes in adipose tissue;
(c)
in all cases of obesity,
the energy content of the ingested food has exceeded the energy
expenditure of the body;
(d)
in a normal individual, increasing
blood glucose concentration increases hunger sensations.
14.
Body temperature regulation is
(a)
influenced by temperature
receptors in the skin,
(b)
influenced by the temperature of the
blood perfusing the heat regulation centers of the brain,
(c)
subject to both neural and hormonal control,
(d)
all of the above.
15.
Which of the following yields the greatest caloric value per gram?
(a)
fats,
(b)
proteins,
(c)
carbohydrates,
(d)
all are equal in caloric
value.
Short Answer Essay Questions
16.
What is cellular respiration? What is the common role of FAD
and NAD
1
in cellular respiration?
17.
Describe the site, major events, and outcomes of glycolysis.
18.
Pyruvic acid is a product of glycolysis, but it is not the substance
that joins with the pickup molecule to enter the Krebs cycle.
What is that substance?
19.
Define glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and
lipogenesis. Which is (are) likely to be occurring (a) shortly
a²er a carbohydrate-rich meal, (b) just before waking up in the
morning?
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