Chapter 24
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation
909
24
Table 24.1
Summary of Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Nutrients
 
RECOMMENDED
DAILY ALLOWANCE
(RDA) FOR ADULTS
PROBLEMS
FOOD SOURCES
EXCESSES
DEFICITS
Carbohydrates
Total Digestible
Complex carbohydrates
(starches): bread, cereal,
crackers, flour, pasta, rice,
potatoes
Simple carbohydrates (sugars):
carbonated drinks, candy, fruit,
ice cream, pudding, young
(immature) vegetables
130 g
45–65% of total caloric
intake
Obesity; diabetes mellitus;
nutritional deficits; dental caries;
gastrointestinal irritation; elevated
triglycerides in plasma
Tissue wasting (in extreme
deprivation); metabolic acidosis
resulting from accelerated fat use
for energy
Total Fiber
25–30 g
 
 
Lipids
Total
65 g
20–35% of total caloric
intake
Obesity and increased risk of
cardiovascular disease (particularly
if excesses of saturated and trans
fat)
Weight loss; fat stores and tissue
proteins catabolized to provide
metabolic energy; problems
controlling heat loss (due to
depletion of subcutaneous fat)
Animal sources:
lard, meat,
poultry, eggs, milk, milk
products
20 g
 
 
Plant sources:
chocolate; corn,
soy, cottonseed, olive oils;
coconut; corn; peanuts
11–17 g
 
 
Essential fatty acids:
fish oil,
corn, cottonseed, soy oils; wheat
germ; vegetable shortenings
1.1–1.6 g
Excess dietary intake of omega-3
fatty acid may increase risk of
stroke
Poor growth; skin lesions (eczema-
like); depression
Cholesterol and trans fatty
acids:
organ meats (liver,
kidneys, brains), egg yolks, fish
roe; smaller concentrations in
milk products and meat
Not determined
Increased levels of blood
cholesterol and low-density
lipoproteins, correlated with
increased risk of cardiovascular
disease
Increased risk of stroke (CVA) in
susceptible individuals
Proteins
Complete proteins:
eggs, milk,
milk products, meat (fish,
poultry, pork, beef, lamb),
soybeans
Incomplete proteins:
legumes
(lima beans, kidney beans,
lentils); nuts and seeds; grains
and cereals; vegetables
0.8 g/kg body weight
12–20% of total caloric
intake
Obesity; enhanced calcium
excretion and bone loss; high
cholesterol levels in blood; kidney
stones
Profound weight loss and tissue
wasting; retarded growth in
children; anemia; edema (due to
deficits of plasma proteins)
During pregnancy: miscarriage or
premature birth
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