801
F
ar from self-sustaining, our bodies depend on the external environ-
ment,
both as a source of substances we need to survive and as a catch basin for
wastes. Our trillions of cells require a continuous supply of oxygen to carry out their
vital functions. We can live without food or water for days, but we cannot do without
oxygen for even a little while.
As cells use oxygen, they give off carbon dioxide, a waste product the body must get
rid of. Tey also generate dangerous free radicals, the inescapable by-products of living
in a world full of oxygen.
22
The Respiratory System
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory
System
(pp. 802–816)
The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
(pp. 803–806)
The Pharynx (p. 806)
The Larynx (pp. 807–809)
The Trachea (p. 809)
The Bronchi and Subdivisions (pp. 809–812)
The Lungs and Pleurae (pp. 812–816)
Mechanics of Breathing
(pp. 816–824)
Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic
Cavity (pp. 816–817)
Pulmonary Ventilation (pp. 817–820)
Physical Factors Influencing Pulmonary
Ventilation (pp. 820–821)
Respiratory Volumes and Pulmonary
Function Tests (pp. 821–823)
Nonrespiratory Air Movements (pp. 823–824)
Gas Exchanges Between the Blood,
Lungs, and Tissues
(pp. 824–828)
Basic Properties of Gases (pp. 824–825)
Composition of Alveolar Gas (p. 825)
External Respiration (pp. 825–827)
Internal Respiration (pp. 827–828)
Transport of Respiratory Gases
by Blood
(pp. 828–833)
Oxygen Transport (pp. 828–829)
Carbon Dioxide Transport (pp. 829–833)
Control of Respiration
(pp. 834–838)
Neural Mechanisms (pp. 834–835)
Factors Influencing Breathing Rate
and Depth (pp. 835–838)
Respiratory Adjustments
(pp. 838–839)
Exercise (p. 838)
High Altitude (pp. 838–839)
Homeostatic Imbalances of the
Respiratory System
(pp. 839–841)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(COPD) (pp. 839–840)
Asthma (p. 840)
Tuberculosis (TB) (pp. 840–841)
Lung Cancer (p. 841)
Developmental Aspects of the
Respiratory System
(pp. 841–844)
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