44
UNIT 1
Organization of the Body
2
Example
This polysaccharide is a simplified representation of
glycogen, a polysaccharide formed from glucose units.
Example
Sucrose, maltose, and lactose
(these disaccharides are isomers)
Example
Hexose sugars (the hexoses shown here are isomers)
Example
Pentose sugars
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
Glucose
O
OH
HO
H
H
CH
2
OH
H
HO
Fructose
HOCH
2
HOCH
2
H
OH
H
OH
H
HO
H
OH
O
Glucose
O
O
OH
HO
H
H
CH
2
OH
H
Fructose
HOCH
2
HOCH
2
H
H
OH
H
HO
H
OH
O
HOCH
2
H
OH
H
OH
H
OH
O
Glucose
Glucose
O
HOCH
2
H
H
HOCH
2
H
OH
H
OH
H
OH
O
Glucose
O
H
H
OH
H
HO
H
OH
O
Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose
O
O
O
O
H
H
H
H
H
Glycogen
CH
2
HOCH
2
H
Galactose
Galactose
OH H
Deoxyribose
Ribose
OH
H
OH
H
OH
H
HO
H
HOCH
2
H
OH
H
OH
H
H
HO
H
HOCH
2
H
H
H
OH
H
OH OH
HOCH
2
H
H
H
OH
H
(a)
Monosaccharides
Monomers of carbohydrates
(b)
Disaccharides
Consist of two linked monosaccharides
(c)
Polysaccharides
Long chains (polymers) of linked monosaccharides
Figure 2.15
Carbohydrate molecules important to the body.
*
*Notice that in Figure 2.15 the carbon (C) atoms present at the angles of the carbohydrate ring structures are not
illustrated and in Figure 2.15c only the oxygen atoms and one CH
2
group are shown. The illustrations at right give an
example of this shorthand style: The full structure of glucose is on the left and the shorthand structure on the right.
This style is used for nearly all organic ringlike structures illustrated in this chapter.
H
OH
CH
2
OH
OH
H
HO
H
OH
O
O
C
C
C
C
H
C
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