Chapter 19
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
749
19
Multiple Choice/Matching
(Some questions have more than one correct answer. Select the best
answer or answers from the choices given.)
1.
Which statement does not accurately describe veins?
(a)
Have
less elastic tissue and smooth muscle than arteries,
(b)
contain
more fibrous tissue than arteries,
(c)
most veins in the extremities
have valves,
(d)
always carry deoxygenated blood.
2.
Smooth muscle in the blood vessel wall
(a)
is found primarily
in the tunica intima,
(b)
is mostly circularly arranged,
(c)
is most abundant in veins,
(d)
is usually innervated by the
parasympathetic nervous system.
3.
Peripheral resistance
(a)
is inversely proportional to the length of the
vascular bed,
(b)
increases in anemia,
(c)
decreases in polycythemia,
(d)
is inversely related to the diameter of the arterioles.
4.
Which of the following can lead to decreased venous return
of blood to the heart?
(a)
an increase in blood volume,
(b)
an
increase in venous pressure,
(c)
damage to the venous valves,
(d)
increased muscular activity.
5.
Arterial blood pressure increases in response to
(a)
increasing
stroke volume,
(b)
increasing heart rate,
(c)
atherosclerosis,
(d)
rising blood volume,
(e)
all of these.
6.
Which of the following would
not
result in the dilation of the
feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters
in systemic capillary beds?
(a)
a decrease in local tissue O
2
content,
(b)
an increase in local tissue CO
2
,
(c)
a local increase in
histamine,
(d)
a local increase in pH.
7.
Te structure of a capillary wall differs from that of a vein or an
artery because
(a)
it has two tunics instead of three,
(b)
there
is less smooth muscle,
(c)
it has a single tunic—only the tunica
intima,
(d)
none of these.
8.
Te baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are
sensitive to
(a)
a decrease in CO
2
,
(b)
changes in arterial pressure,
(c)
a decrease in O
2
,
(d)
all of these.
9.
Te myocardium receives its blood supply directly from the
(a)
aorta,
(b)
coronary arteries,
(c)
coronary sinus,
(d)
pulmonary arteries.
10.
Blood flow in the capillaries is steady despite the rhythmic
pumping of the heart because of the
(a)
elasticity of the large
arteries,
(b)
small diameter of capillaries,
(c)
thin walls of the
veins,
(d)
venous valves.
11.
Using the letters from column B, match the artery descriptions in
column A. (Note that some require more than a single choice.)
Review Questions
Column A
____ (1)
unpaired branch of
abdominal aorta
____ (2)
second branch of
aortic arch
____ (3)
branch of internal
carotid
____ (4)
branch of external
carotid
____ (5)
origin of femoral
arteries
Column B
(a)
right common carotid
(b)
superior mesenteric
(c)
leF common carotid
(d)
external iliac
(e)
inferior mesenteric
(f)
superficial temporal
(g)
celiac trunk
(h)
facial
(i)
ophthalmic
(j)
internal iliac
13.
Which of the following do not drain directly into the inferior
vena cava?
(a)
inferior phrenic veins,
(b)
hepatic veins,
(c)
inferior mesenteric vein,
(d)
renal veins.
14.
Suppose that at a given point along a capillary, the following
forces exist: capillary hydrostatic pressure (HP
c
)
5
30 mm Hg,
interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (HP
if
)
5
0 mm Hg, capillary
colloid osmotic pressure (OP
c
)
5
25 mm Hg, and interstitial
fluid colloid osmotic pressure (OP
if
)
5
2 mm Hg. Te net
filtration pressure at this point in the capillary is
(a)
3 mm Hg,
(b)
2
3 mm Hg,
(c)
2
7 mm Hg,
(d)
7 mm Hg.
Short Answer Essay Questions
15.
How is the anatomy of capillaries and capillary beds well suited to
their function?
16.
Distinguish between elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles
relative to location, histology, and functional adaptations.
17.
Write an equation showing the relationship between peripheral
resistance, blood flow, and blood pressure.
18.
(a) Define blood pressure. Differentiate between systolic and
diastolic blood pressure. (b) What is the normal blood pressure
value for an adult?
19.
Describe the neural mechanisms responsible for controlling
blood pressure.
20.
Explain the reasons for the observed changes in blood flow
velocity in the different regions of the circulation.
21.
How does the control of blood flow to the skin for the purpose of
regulating body temperature differ from the control of nutrient
blood flow to skin cells?
22.
Describe neural and chemical (both systemic and local) effects
exerted on the blood vessels when you are fleeing from a mugger.
(Be careful, this is more involved than it appears at first glance.)
23.
How are nutrients, wastes, and respiratory gases transported to
and from the blood and tissue spaces?
24.
(a) What blood vessels contribute to the formation of the hepatic
portal circulation? (b) Why is a portal circulation a “strange”
circulation?
25.
Physiologists oFen consider capillaries and postcapillary
venules together. (a) What functions do these vessels share?
(b) Structurally, how do they differ?
Critical Thinking
and Clinical Application
Questions
1.
Mrs. Johnson is brought to the emergency room aFer being
involved in an auto accident. She is hemorrhaging and has a
rapid, thready pulse, but her blood pressure is still within normal
limits. Describe the compensatory mechanisms that act to
maintain her blood pressure in the face of blood loss.
2.
A 60-year-old man is unable to walk more than 100 yards without
experiencing severe pain in his leF leg; the pain is relieved by
resting for 5–10 minutes. He is told that the arteries of his leg are
becoming occluded with fatty material and is advised to have the
sympathetic nerves serving that body region severed. Explain
how such surgery might help to relieve this man’s problem.
3.
Your friend Joanie, who knows little about science, is reading a
magazine article about a patient who had an “aneurysm at the base
of his brain that suddenly grew much larger.” Te surgeons’ first goal
was to “keep it from rupturing,” and the second goal was to “relieve
12.
±racing the blood from the heart to the right hand, we find
that blood leaves the heart and passes through the aorta, the
right subclavian artery, the axillary and brachial arteries, and
through either the radial or ulnar artery to arrive at the hand.
Which artery is missing from this sequence?
(a)
coronary,
(b)
brachiocephalic,
(c)
cephalic,
(d)
right common carotid.
previous page 783 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 785 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off