Chapter 19
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
Vertebral artery
Costocervical trunk
Thoracoacromial artery
Axillary artery
Subscapular artery
Radial artery
Ulnar artery
(b) Illustration, anterior view
Deep palmar arch
Superficial palmar arch
Digital arteries
Brachial artery
Suprascapular artery
Thyrocervical trunk
Common carotid arteries
Right subclavian artery
Left subclavian artery
Brachiocephalic trunk
Posterior intercostal
Anterior intercostal
Internal thoracic artery
Lateral thoracic artery
Thoracic aorta
Posterior circumflex
humeral artery
Anterior circumflex
humeral artery
Deep artery of arm
Common interosseous
Figure 19.23
Table 19.6
Arteries of the Thorax Wall
Internal thoracic arteries.
Te internal thoracic arteries (for-
merly called the internal mammary arteries) arise from the
subclavian arteries and supply blood to most of the anterior
thorax wall. Each of these arteries descends lateral to the ster-
num and gives off
anterior intercostal arteries
, which supply
the intercostal spaces anteriorly. Te internal thoracic artery also
sends superficial branches to the skin and mammary glands and
terminates in twiglike branches to the anterior abdominal wall
and diaphragm.
Posterior intercostal arteries.
Te superior two pairs of pos-
terior intercostal arteries are derived from the
. Te next nine pairs issue from the thoracic aorta and
course around the rib cage to anastomose anteriorly with the
anterior intercostal arteries. Inferior to the 12th rib, a pair of
subcostal arteries
emerges from the thoracic aorta (not illus-
trated). Te posterior intercostal arteries supply the posterior
intercostal spaces, deep muscles of the back, vertebrae, and spi-
nal cord. ±ogether, the posterior and anterior intercostal arter-
ies supply the intercostal muscles.
Superior phrenic arteries.
One or more paired superior
phrenic arteries serve the posterior superior aspect of the dia-
phragm surface.
Arteries of the Thoracic Viscera
Pericardial arteries.
Several tiny branches supply the poste-
rior pericardium.
Bronchial arteries.
±wo leF and one right bronchial arteries
supply systemic (oxygen-rich) blood to the lungs, bronchi, and
Esophageal arteries.
²our to five esophageal arteries supply
the esophagus.
Mediastinal arteries.
Many small mediastinal arteries serve
the posterior mediastinum.
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