Chapter 19
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
727
19
posterior cerebral arteries
, which supply the occipital lobes and
the inferior parts of the temporal lobes.
Arterial shunts called
posterior communicating arter-
ies
connect the posterior cerebral arteries to the middle cer-
ebral arteries anteriorly. Te two posterior and single anterior
communicating arteries complete the formation of an arterial
anastomosis called the
cerebral arterial circle
(
circle of Willis
).
• Superficial
temporal artery
Ophthalmic artery
• Maxillary artery
• Occipital artery
• Facial artery
• Lingual artery
• Superior thyroid
artery
Larynx
Thyroid gland
(overlying trachea)
Cla
vicle (cut)
Brachiocephalic
trunk
Internal thoracic
artery
Basilar artery
Vertebral
artery
Internal
carotid artery
Subclavian
artery
Axillary
artery
(b) Arteries of the head and neck, right aspect
(c) Colorized arteriograph of the arterial supply of the brain
External
carotid artery
C
ommon
carotid artery
Thyrocervical
trunk
C
ostocervical
trunk
Branches of
the external
carotid artery
Frontal lobe
Optic chiasma
Middle
cerebral
artery
Internal
carotid
artery
Mammillary
body
T
emporal
lobe
Occipital lobe
Cerebral arterial
circle
(circle of Willis)
Anterior
Posterior
• Posterior
cerebral artery
Basilar artery
Vertebral artery
Cerebellum
• Posterior
communicating
artery
(d) Major arteries serving the brain
(inferior vie
w,
right side
of cerebellum and part of right temporal lobe remo
v
ed)
Pons
• Anterior
cerebral artery
• Anterior
communicating
artery
(continued)
Table 19.5
to the vertebrae and cervical spinal cord and to some deep struc-
tures of the neck. Within the cranium, the right and leF vertebral
arteries join to form the
basilar artery
(bas
9
ĭ-lar), which ascends
along the anterior aspect of the brain stem, giving off branches
to the cerebellum, pons, and inner ear (±igure 19.22b and d). At
the pons-midbrain border, the basilar artery divides into a pair of
Tis structure encircles the pituitary gland and optic
chiasma and unites the brain’s anterior and posterior
blood supplies. It also equalizes blood pressure in the
two brain areas and provides alternate routes for blood
to reach the brain tissue if a carotid or vertebral artery
becomes occluded.
Thyrocervical and costocervical trunks.
Tese short
vessels arise from the subclavian artery just lateral to the
vertebral arteries on each side (±igures 19.22b and ±ig-
ure 19.23). Te thyrocervical trunk mainly supplies the
thyroid gland, portions of the cervical vertebrae and spi-
nal cord, and some scapular muscles. Te costocervical
trunk serves deep neck and superior intercostal muscles.
Figure 19.22
(continued)
previous page 761 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 763 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off