The Endocrine System
Name two endocrine glands (or regions) that are important in the
stress response, and explain why they are important.
Te anterior pituitary is ofen reFerred to as the master endocrine
organ, but it, too, has a “master.” What controls the release oF
anterior pituitary hormones?
Te posterior pituitary is not really an endocrine gland. Why not?
What is it?
Endemic goiter is not really the result oF a malFunctioning thyroid
gland. What does cause it?
How are the hyperglycemia and lipidemia oF insulin deﬁciency
Name a hormone secreted by a muscle cell and two hormones
secreted by neurons.
List some problems that elderly people might have as a result oF
decreasing hormone production.
and Clinical Application
Richard Neis had symptoms oF excessive secretion oF P±H (high
blood calcium levels), and his physicians were certain he had a
parathyroid gland tumor. Yet when surgery was perFormed on
his neck, the surgeon could not ﬁnd the parathyroid glands at
all. Where should the surgeon look next to ﬁnd the tumorous
Mary Morgan has just been brought into the emergency room
oF City General Hospital. She is perspiring proFusely and is
breathing rapidly and irregularly. Her breath smells like acetone
(sweet and Fruity), and her blood glucose tests out at 650 mg/100
ml oF blood. She is in acidosis. Which hormone drug should be
administered, and why?
Johnny, a 5-year-old boy, has been growing by leaps and
bounds; his height is 100% above normal For his age. He has
been complaining oF headaches and vision problems. A C± scan
reveals a large pituitary tumor. (a) Which hormone is being
secreted in excess? (b) What condition will Johnny exhibit iF
corrective measures are not taken? (c) What is the probable cause
oF his headaches and visual problems?
Sean, a 42-year-old single Father, goes to his physician
complaining oF nausea and chronic Fatigue. He reports having Felt
Fatigued and listless For about halF a year, but he had attributed
this to stress. He has lost considerable weight and, strangely,
his skin has a healthy tan, even though he spends long hours
at work and rarely ventures outside. His doctor ﬁnds very low
blood pressure and a rapid, weak pulse. Blood tests show that
Sean does not have anemia, but his plasma glucose, cortisol, and
are low, and his plasma K
is high. His doctor orders an
AC±H stimulation test, in which Sean’s secretion oF cortisol is
measured afer he is given a synthetic Form oF AC±H. (a) What
would account For Sean’s low plasma Na
and high plasma K
(b) What is the reason For doing an AC±H stimulation test?
(c) Which gland is primarily aﬀected iF AC±H does not cause a
normal elevation oF cortisol secretion? What is this abnormality
called? (d) Which gland is primarily aﬀected iF AC±H does cause
an elevation oF cortisol secretion?
Roger Proulx has severe arthritis and has been taking
prednisone (a glucocorticoid) For two months. He isn’t Feeling
well, complains oF repeated “colds,” and is extremely “puﬀy”
(edematous). Explain the reason For these symptoms.
important anabolic hormone; many oF its eﬀects
mediated by IG²s
cause the kidneys to conserve water and/or salt (two
stimulates milk production
tropic hormone that stimulates the gonads to secrete
increases uterine contractions during birth
major metabolic hormone(s) oF the body
causes reabsorption oF sodium ions by the kidneys
tropic hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to
secrete thyroid hormone
secreted by the posterior pituitary (two choices)
the only steroid hormone in the list
A hypodermic injection oF epinephrine would
heart rate, increase blood pressure, dilate the bronchi oF the
lungs, and increase peristalsis,
decrease heart rate, decrease
blood pressure, constrict the bronchi, and increase peristalsis,
decrease heart rate, increase blood pressure, constrict the
bronchi, and decrease peristalsis,
increase heart rate, increase
blood pressure, dilate the bronchi, and decrease peristalsis.
±estosterone is to the male as which hormone is to the Female?
IF anterior pituitary secretion is deﬁcient in a growing child, the
become a dwarF but have Fairly
normal body proportions,
mature sexually at an earlier than
be in constant danger oF becoming dehydrated.
IF there is adequate carbohydrate intake, secretion oF insulin
lower blood glucose levels,
utilization oF glucose,
storage oF glycogen,
all oF these.
are produced by exocrine glands,
carried to all parts oF the body in blood,
remain at constant
concentration in the blood,
aﬀect only non-hormone-
Some hormones act by
increasing the synthesis oF enzymes,
converting an inactive enzyme into an active enzyme,
aﬀecting only speciﬁc target organs,
all oF these.
Absence oF thyroid hormone would result in
rate and increased Force oF heart contraction,
the CNS and lethargy,
high metabolic rate.
Medullary chromaﬃn cells are Found in the
anterior pituitary gland,
Atrial natriuretic peptide secreted by the heart has exactly
the opposite Function oF this hormone secreted by the zona
Short Answer Essay Questions
Which type oF hormone receptor—plasma membrane bound or
intracellular—would be expected to provide the most long-lived
response to hormone binding and why?
(a) Describe the body location oF each oF the Following endocrine
organs: anterior pituitary, pineal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes,
and adrenal glands. (b) List the hormones produced by each organ.