Chapter 16
The Endocrine System
629
16
18.
Name two endocrine glands (or regions) that are important in the
stress response, and explain why they are important.
19.
Te anterior pituitary is ofen reFerred to as the master endocrine
organ, but it, too, has a “master.” What controls the release oF
anterior pituitary hormones?
20.
Te posterior pituitary is not really an endocrine gland. Why not?
What is it?
21.
Endemic goiter is not really the result oF a malFunctioning thyroid
gland. What does cause it?
22.
How are the hyperglycemia and lipidemia oF insulin deficiency
linked?
23.
Name a hormone secreted by a muscle cell and two hormones
secreted by neurons.
24.
List some problems that elderly people might have as a result oF
decreasing hormone production.
Critical Thinking
and Clinical Application
Questions
1.
Richard Neis had symptoms oF excessive secretion oF P±H (high
blood calcium levels), and his physicians were certain he had a
parathyroid gland tumor. Yet when surgery was perFormed on
his neck, the surgeon could not find the parathyroid glands at
all. Where should the surgeon look next to find the tumorous
parathyroid gland?
2.
Mary Morgan has just been brought into the emergency room
oF City General Hospital. She is perspiring proFusely and is
breathing rapidly and irregularly. Her breath smells like acetone
(sweet and Fruity), and her blood glucose tests out at 650 mg/100
ml oF blood. She is in acidosis. Which hormone drug should be
administered, and why?
3.
Johnny, a 5-year-old boy, has been growing by leaps and
bounds; his height is 100% above normal For his age. He has
been complaining oF headaches and vision problems. A C± scan
reveals a large pituitary tumor. (a) Which hormone is being
secreted in excess? (b) What condition will Johnny exhibit iF
corrective measures are not taken? (c) What is the probable cause
oF his headaches and visual problems?
4.
Sean, a 42-year-old single Father, goes to his physician
complaining oF nausea and chronic Fatigue. He reports having Felt
Fatigued and listless For about halF a year, but he had attributed
this to stress. He has lost considerable weight and, strangely,
his skin has a healthy tan, even though he spends long hours
at work and rarely ventures outside. His doctor finds very low
blood pressure and a rapid, weak pulse. Blood tests show that
Sean does not have anemia, but his plasma glucose, cortisol, and
Na
1
are low, and his plasma K
1
is high. His doctor orders an
AC±H stimulation test, in which Sean’s secretion oF cortisol is
measured afer he is given a synthetic Form oF AC±H. (a) What
would account For Sean’s low plasma Na
1
and high plasma K
1
?
(b) What is the reason For doing an AC±H stimulation test?
(c) Which gland is primarily affected iF AC±H does not cause a
normal elevation oF cortisol secretion? What is this abnormality
called? (d) Which gland is primarily affected iF AC±H does cause
an elevation oF cortisol secretion?
5.
Roger Proulx has severe arthritis and has been taking
prednisone (a glucocorticoid) For two months. He isn’t Feeling
well, complains oF repeated “colds,” and is extremely “puffy”
(edematous). Explain the reason For these symptoms.
Key:
(a)
aldosterone
(b)
antidiuretic hormone
(c)
growth hormone
(d)
luteinizing hormone
(e)
oxytocin
(f)
prolactin
(g)
±
4
and ±
3
(h)
±SH
____ (1)
important anabolic hormone; many oF its effects
mediated by IG²s
____ (2)
cause the kidneys to conserve water and/or salt (two
choices)
____ (3)
stimulates milk production
____ (4)
tropic hormone that stimulates the gonads to secrete
sex hormones
____ (5)
increases uterine contractions during birth
____ (6)
major metabolic hormone(s) oF the body
____ (7)
causes reabsorption oF sodium ions by the kidneys
____ (8)
tropic hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to
secrete thyroid hormone
____ (9)
secreted by the posterior pituitary (two choices)
____ (10)
the only steroid hormone in the list
6.
A hypodermic injection oF epinephrine would
(a)
increase
heart rate, increase blood pressure, dilate the bronchi oF the
lungs, and increase peristalsis,
(b)
decrease heart rate, decrease
blood pressure, constrict the bronchi, and increase peristalsis,
(c)
decrease heart rate, increase blood pressure, constrict the
bronchi, and decrease peristalsis,
(d)
increase heart rate, increase
blood pressure, dilate the bronchi, and decrease peristalsis.
7.
±estosterone is to the male as which hormone is to the Female?
(a)
luteinizing hormone,
(b)
progesterone,
(c)
estrogen,
(d)
prolactin.
8.
IF anterior pituitary secretion is deficient in a growing child, the
child will
(a)
develop acromegaly,
(b)
become a dwarF but have Fairly
normal body proportions,
(c)
mature sexually at an earlier than
normal age,
(d)
be in constant danger oF becoming dehydrated.
9.
IF there is adequate carbohydrate intake, secretion oF insulin
results in
(a)
lower blood glucose levels,
(b)
increased cell
utilization oF glucose,
(c)
storage oF glycogen,
(d)
all oF these.
10.
Hormones
(a)
are produced by exocrine glands,
(b)
are
carried to all parts oF the body in blood,
(c)
remain at constant
concentration in the blood,
(d)
affect only non-hormone-
producing organs.
11.
Some hormones act by
(a)
increasing the synthesis oF enzymes,
(b)
converting an inactive enzyme into an active enzyme,
(c)
affecting only specific target organs,
(d)
all oF these.
12.
Absence oF thyroid hormone would result in
(a)
increased heart
rate and increased Force oF heart contraction,
(b)
depression oF
the CNS and lethargy,
(c)
exophthalmos,
(d)
high metabolic rate.
13.
Medullary chromaffin cells are Found in the
(a)
parathyroid
gland,
(b)
anterior pituitary gland,
(c)
adrenal gland,
(d)
pineal
gland.
14.
Atrial natriuretic peptide secreted by the heart has exactly
the opposite Function oF this hormone secreted by the zona
glomerulosa:
(a)
antidiuretic hormone,
(b)
epinephrine,
(c)
calcitonin,
(d)
aldosterone,
(e)
androgens.
Short Answer Essay Questions
15.
Define hormone.
16.
Which type oF hormone receptor—plasma membrane bound or
intracellular—would be expected to provide the most long-lived
response to hormone binding and why?
17.
(a) Describe the body location oF each oF the Following endocrine
organs: anterior pituitary, pineal gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes,
and adrenal glands. (b) List the hormones produced by each organ.
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