Integumentary System
Chapter 5
Androgens cause activation of sebaceous glands; estrogen
increases skin hydration
Skin produces cholecalciferol (provitamin D)
Skeletal System
Chapters 6–8
PTH regulates calcium blood levels; growth hormone, T
3
,
T
4
, and sex hormones are necessary for normal skeletal
development
The skeleton provides some protection to endocrine organs,
especially to those in the brain, chest, and pelvis
Muscular System
Chapters 9–10
Growth hormone is essential for normal muscular development;
other hormones (thyroxine and catecholamines) influence
muscle metabolism
Muscular system mechanically protects some endocrine glands;
muscular activity elicits catecholamine release
S Y S T E M
C O N N E C T I O N S
Homeostatic Interrelationships Between the
Endocrine System
and Other Body Systems
Access more System Connections in the Study Area at
www.masteringaandp.com
.
Nervous System
Chapters 11–15
Many hormones (growth hormone, thyroxine, sex hormones)
influence normal maturation and function of the nervous
system
Hypothalamus controls anterior pituitary function and produces
two hormones
Cardiovascular System
Chapters 17–19
Several hormones influence blood volume, blood pressure,
and heart contractility; erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell
production
Blood is the main transport medium of hormones; heart
produces atrial natriuretic peptide
Lymphatic System/Immunity
Chapters 20–21
Lymphocytes “programmed” by thymic hormones seed the
lymph nodes; glucocorticoids depress the immune response and
inflammation
Chemical messengers of the immune system stimulate the
release of cortisol and ACTH; lymph provides a route for
transport of hormones
Respiratory System
Chapter 22
Epinephrine influences ventilation (dilates bronchioles)
Respiratory system provides oxygen; disposes of carbon
dioxide; converting enzyme in lungs converts angiotensin I to
angiotensin II
Digestive System
Chapter 23
GI hormones and paracrines influence GI function; activated
vitamin D necessary for absorption of calcium from diet;
catecholamines influence digestive motility and secretory
activity
Digestive system provides nutrients to endocrine organs
Urinary System
Chapters 25–26
Aldosterone and ADH influence renal function; erythropoietin
released by kidneys influences red blood cell formation
Kidneys activate vitamin D (considered a hormone)
Reproductive System
Chapters 27–28
Hypothalamic, anterior pituitary, and gonadal hormones direct
reproductive system development and function; oxytocin and
prolactin involved in birth and breast-feeding
Gonadal hormones feed back to influence endocrine system
function
626
16
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