Organization of the Body
mechanisms and one example of a process regulated by a positive
Why is an understanding of the anatomical position important?
Deﬁne plane and section.
Provide the anatomical term that correctly names each of the
following body regions: (a) arm, (b) thigh, (c) chest, (d) ﬁngers
and toes, (e) anterior aspect of the knee.
Use as many directional terms as you can to describe the
relationship between the elbow’s olecranal region and your palm.
(a) Make a diagram showing the nine abdominopelvic regions,
and name each region. Name two organs (or parts of organs) that
could be located in each of the named regions. (b) Make a similar
sketch illustrating how the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided
into quadrants, and name each quadrant.
and Clinical Application
John has been suﬀering agonizing pain with each breath and
has been informed by the physician that he has pleurisy. (a)
Speciﬁcally, what membranes are involved in this condition?
(b) What is their usual role in the body? (c) Explain why John’s
condition is so painful.
At the clinic, Harry was told that blood would be drawn from his
antecubital region. What body part was Harry asked to hold out?
Later, the nurse came in and gave Harry a shot of penicillin in the
area just distal to his acromial region. Did Harry take oﬀ his shirt
or drop his pants to receive the injection? Before Harry leF, the
nurse noticed that Harry had a nasty bruise on his gluteal region.
What part of his body was black and blue?
A man is behaving abnormally, and his physician suspects that
he has a brain tumor. Which of the following medical imaging
techniques would best localize the tumor in the man’s brain (and
why)? Conventional X ray, DSA, PET, sonography, MRI.
Calcium levels in Mr. Gallariani’s blood are dropping to
dangerously low levels. ±e hormone PTH is released and soon
blood calcium levels begin to rise. Shortly aFer, PTH release
slows. Is this an example of a positive or negative feedback
mechanism? What is the initial stimulus? What is the result?
Mr. Harvey, a computer programmer, has been complaining of
numbness and pain in his right hand. ±e nurse practitioner
diagnosed his problem as carpal tunnel syndrome and prescribed
use of a splint. Where will Mr. Harvey apply the splint?
elbow/the wrist). In each case, choose the structure or organ that
matches the given directional term.
distal: the elbow/the wrist
lateral: the hip bone/the umbilicus
superior: the nose/the chin
anterior: the toes/the heel
superﬁcial: the scalp/the skull
Assume that the body has been sectioned along three planes:
a median plane,
a frontal plane, and
a transverse plane
made at the level of each of the organs listed below. Which organs
would be visible in only one or two of these three cases?
Relate each of the following conditions or statements to either the
dorsal body cavity or the ventral body cavity.
surrounded by the bony skull and the vertebral column
includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
contains the brain and spinal cord
contains the heart, lungs, and digestive organs
Which of the following relationships is
visceral peritoneum/outer surface of small intestine
parietal pericardium/outer surface of heart
parietal pleura/wall of thoracic cavity
Which ventral cavity subdivision has no bony protection?
Terms that apply to the backside of the body in the anatomical
Short Answer Essay Questions
According to the principle of complementarity, how does
anatomy relate to physiology?
Construct a table that lists the 11 systems of the body, names two
organs of each system (if appropriate), and describes the overall
or major function of each system.
List and describe brieﬂy ﬁve external factors that must be present
or provided to sustain life.
Compare and contrast the operation of negative and positive
feedback mechanisms in maintaining homeostasis. Provide
two examples of variables controlled by negative feedback