530
UNIT 3
Regulation and Integration of the Body
14
Effectors
Blood vessels
Abdominal
organs
(e.g., intestine)
Skin (arrector
pili muscles
and sweat
glands)
Spinal cord
Dorsal root
Ventral root
Sympathetic
trunk ganglion
Sympathetic
trunk
Rib
Dorsal root ganglion
Dorsal ramus of
spinal nerve
Dorsal root
Sympathetic
trunk ganglion
Lateral horn
(visceral
motor zone)
Ventral root
Sympathetic trunk
Ventral ramus
of spinal nerve
Gray ramus
communicans
White ramus
communicans
Gray ramus
communicans
White ramus
communicans
Thoracic
splanchnic nerves
Splanchnic nerve
Collateral ganglion
(such as the celiac)
Ventral ramus of
spinal nerve
Synapse at the same level
1
Synapse at a higher or lower level
2
Synapse in a distant collateral
ganglion anterior to the vertebral
column
3
(a) Location of the sympathetic trunk
(b) Three pathways of sympathetic innervation
Figure 14.5
Sympathetic trunks and pathways.
(a)
Diagram of the right sympathetic
trunk in the posterior thorax.
(b)
Synapses between preganglionic and postganglionic
sympathetic neurons can occur at three different locations—in a sympathetic trunk ganglion at
the same level, in a sympathetic trunk ganglion at a different level, or in a collateral ganglion.
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