Regulation and Integration of the Body
Match the receptor type in column B to the correct description in
pain, itch, and tem-
ﬁbers and anulospiral
and ﬂower spray endings
receptor in hairless
around thick collagen
rapidly adapting deep-
slowly adapting deep-
free nerve endings
Match the names of the cranial nerves in column B to the
appropriate description in column A.
causes pupillary constriction
the major sensory
nerve of the face
serves the sternoclei-
domastoid and tra-
purely sensory (two nerves)
serves the tongue muscles
allows you to chew
impaired in Bell’s palsy
helps regulate heart activity
helps you hear and
maintain your balance
____, ____, ____, ____, (10)
contain parasympathetic motor ﬁbers
For each of the following muscles or body regions, identify the
plexus and the peripheral nerve(s) (or branch of one) involved.
Use choices from keys A and B.
____; ____ (1)
____; ____ (2)
muscles of the
____; ____ (3)
anterior thigh muscles
____; ____ (4)
medial thigh muscles
____; ____ (5)
anterior arm muscles
that ﬂex the forearm
____; ____ (6)
muscles that ﬂex
the wrist and dig-
its (two nerves)
____; ____ (7)
muscles that ex-
tend the wrist
____; ____ (8)
skin and extensor
muscles of the
____; ____ (9)
and toe extensors
____; ____, ____, ____, (10)
Key A: Plexuses
Key B: Nerves
Characterize each receptor activity described below by choosing
the appropriate letter and number(s) from keys A and B.
____, ____ (1)
You are enjoying
an ice cream cone.
____, ____ (2)
You have just scalded
yourself with hot coﬀee.
____, ____ (3)
Te retinas of your
eyes are stimulated.
____, ____ (4)
You bump (lightly)
____, ____ (5)
You are in a completely
dark room and reaching
toward the light switch.
____, ____ (6)
You feel uncomfortable
a±er a large meal.
A reﬂex that causes reciprocal activation of the antagonist muscle is
Short Answer Essay Questions
What is the functional relationship of the peripheral nervous
system to the central nervous system?
List the structural components of the peripheral nervous system,
and describe the function of each component.
Diﬀerentiate clearly between sensation and perception.
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are found at the segmental
level of motor control. (a) What is the job of the CPGs? (b) What
controls them, and where is this control localized?
Make a diagram of the hierarchy of motor control. Position the
CPGs, motor cortex, brain stem nuclei, cerebellum, and basal
nuclei in this scheme.
Why are the cerebellum and basal nuclei called precommand areas?
Explain why damage to peripheral nerve ﬁbers is o±en reversible,
whereas damage to CNS ﬁbers rarely is.
(a) Describe the formation and composition of a spinal nerve.
(b) Name the branches of a spinal nerve (other than the rami
communicantes), and indicate their distribution.
(a) Deﬁne plexus. (b) Indicate the spinal roots of origin of the four major
nerve plexuses, and name the general body regions served by each.
Diﬀerentiate between ipsilateral and contralateral reﬂexes.
What is the homeostatic value of ﬂexor reﬂexes?
Compare and contrast ﬂexor and crossed-extensor reﬂexes.
Explain how a crossed-extensor reﬂex exempliﬁes both serial and
What clinical information can be gained by conducting somatic
What is the structural and functional relationship between spinal
nerves, skeletal muscles, and dermatomes?
and Clinical Application
In 1962 a boy playing in a train yard fell under a train. Te train wheel
cleanly cut oﬀ his right arm. Surgeons reattached the arm, sewing
nerves and vessels back together. Te boy was told he should eventually
regain the use of his arm but that it would never be strong enough to
pitch a baseball. Explain why full recovery of strength was unlikely.
Jeﬀerson, a football quarterback, suﬀered torn menisci in his right
knee joint when tackled from the side. Te same injury crushed
his common ﬁbular nerve against the head of the ﬁbula. What
locomotor problems did Jeﬀerson have a±er this?
As Harry fell oﬀ a ladder, he grabbed a tree branch with his
right hand, but unfortunately lost his grip and fell heavily to the