522
UNIT 3
Regulation and Integration of the Body
13
7.
Match the receptor type in column B to the correct description in
column A.
Column A
____ (1)
pain, itch, and tem-
perature receptors
____ (2)
contains intrafusal
fibers and anulospiral
and flower spray endings
____ (3)
discriminative touch
receptor in hairless
skin (fingertips)
____ (4)
contains receptor
endings wrapped
around thick collagen
bundles
____ (5)
rapidly adapting deep-
pressure receptor
____ (6)
slowly adapting deep-
pressure receptor
Column B
(a)
bulbous corpuscles
(b)
tendon organ
(c)
muscle spindle
(d)
free nerve endings
(e)
lamellar corpuscle
(f)
tactile corpuscle
8.
Match the names of the cranial nerves in column B to the
appropriate description in column A.
Column A
____ (1)
causes pupillary constriction
____ (2)
the major sensory
nerve of the face
____ (3)
serves the sternoclei-
domastoid and tra-
pezius muscles
____ (4)
purely sensory (two nerves)
____ (5)
serves the tongue muscles
____ (6)
allows you to chew
your food
____ (7)
impaired in Bell’s palsy
____ (8)
helps regulate heart activity
____ (9)
helps you hear and
maintain your balance
____, ____, ____, ____, (10)
contain parasympathetic motor fibers
(four nerves)
Column B
(a)
abducens
(b)
accessory
(c)
facial
(d)
glossopharyngeal
(e)
hypoglossal
(f)
oculomotor
(g)
olfactory
(h)
optic
(i)
trigeminal
(j)
trochlear
(k)
vagus
(l)
vestibulocochlear
9.
For each of the following muscles or body regions, identify the
plexus and the peripheral nerve(s) (or branch of one) involved.
Use choices from keys A and B.
____; ____ (1)
the diaphragm
____; ____ (2)
muscles of the
posterior leg
____; ____ (3)
anterior thigh muscles
____; ____ (4)
medial thigh muscles
____; ____ (5)
anterior arm muscles
that flex the forearm
____; ____ (6)
muscles that flex
the wrist and dig-
its (two nerves)
____; ____ (7)
muscles that ex-
tend the wrist
and digits
____; ____ (8)
skin and extensor
muscles of the
posterior arm
____; ____ (9)
fibularis muscles,
tibialis anterior,
and toe extensors
____; ____, ____, ____, (10)
elbow joint
Key A: Plexuses
(a)
brachial
(b)
cervical
(c)
lumbar
(d)
sacral
Key B: Nerves
(1)
common fibular
(2)
femoral
(3)
median
(4)
musculocutaneous
(5)
obturator
(6)
phrenic
(7)
radial
(8)
tibial
(9)
ulnar
10.
Characterize each receptor activity described below by choosing
the appropriate letter and number(s) from keys A and B.
____, ____ (1)
You are enjoying
an ice cream cone.
____, ____ (2)
You have just scalded
yourself with hot coffee.
____, ____ (3)
Te retinas of your
eyes are stimulated.
____, ____ (4)
You bump (lightly)
into someone.
____, ____ (5)
You are in a completely
dark room and reaching
toward the light switch.
____, ____ (6)
You feel uncomfortable
a±er a large meal.
Key A:
(a)
exteroceptor
(b)
interoceptor
(c)
proprioceptor
Key B:
(1)
chemoreceptor
(2)
mechanoreceptor
(3)
nociceptor
(4)
photoreceptor
(5)
thermoreceptor
11.
A reflex that causes reciprocal activation of the antagonist muscle is
the
(a)
crossed-extensor,
(b)
flexor,
(c)
tendon,
(d)
muscle stretch.
Short Answer Essay Questions
12.
What is the functional relationship of the peripheral nervous
system to the central nervous system?
13.
List the structural components of the peripheral nervous system,
and describe the function of each component.
14.
Differentiate clearly between sensation and perception.
15.
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are found at the segmental
level of motor control. (a) What is the job of the CPGs? (b) What
controls them, and where is this control localized?
16.
Make a diagram of the hierarchy of motor control. Position the
CPGs, motor cortex, brain stem nuclei, cerebellum, and basal
nuclei in this scheme.
17.
Why are the cerebellum and basal nuclei called precommand areas?
18.
Explain why damage to peripheral nerve fibers is o±en reversible,
whereas damage to CNS fibers rarely is.
19.
(a) Describe the formation and composition of a spinal nerve.
(b) Name the branches of a spinal nerve (other than the rami
communicantes), and indicate their distribution.
20.
(a) Define plexus. (b) Indicate the spinal roots of origin of the four major
nerve plexuses, and name the general body regions served by each.
21.
Differentiate between ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes.
22.
What is the homeostatic value of flexor reflexes?
23.
Compare and contrast flexor and crossed-extensor reflexes.
24.
Explain how a crossed-extensor reflex exemplifies both serial and
parallel processing.
25.
What clinical information can be gained by conducting somatic
reflex tests?
26.
What is the structural and functional relationship between spinal
nerves, skeletal muscles, and dermatomes?
Critical Thinking
and Clinical Application
Questions
1.
In 1962 a boy playing in a train yard fell under a train. Te train wheel
cleanly cut off his right arm. Surgeons reattached the arm, sewing
nerves and vessels back together. Te boy was told he should eventually
regain the use of his arm but that it would never be strong enough to
pitch a baseball. Explain why full recovery of strength was unlikely.
2.
Jefferson, a football quarterback, suffered torn menisci in his right
knee joint when tackled from the side. Te same injury crushed
his common fibular nerve against the head of the fibula. What
locomotor problems did Jefferson have a±er this?
3.
As Harry fell off a ladder, he grabbed a tree branch with his
right hand, but unfortunately lost his grip and fell heavily to the
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