432
UNIT 3
Regulation and Integration of the Body
12
Before we examine the functional regions of the cerebral cor-
tex, let’s consider four generalizations:
Te cerebral cortex contains three kinds of functional areas:
motor areas
,
sensory areas
, and
association areas
. As you read
and functional MRI scans reveal blood flow
(Figure 12.5)
. Tey
show that specific motor and sensory functions are local-
ized in discrete cortical areas called
domains
. However, many
higher mental functions, such as memory and language, ap-
pear to be spread over large areas of the cortex in overlapping
domains.
Postcentral
gyrus
Central
sulcus
Central
sulcus
Precentral
gyrus
Frontal lobe
(c) Lobes and sulci of the cerebrum
Parietal lobe
Parieto-occipital sulcus
(on medial surface
of hemisphere)
Lateral sulcus
Transverse
cerebral fissure
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla oblongata
Spinal cord
Cortex (gray matter)
Fissure
(a deep
sulcus)
Gyrus
Sulcus
White matter
Left cerebral
hemisphere
Transverse
cerebral
fissure
Cerebellum
Brain stem
(b) Left lateral view
Parietal lobe
Frontal lobe
Right cerebral
hemisphere
Occipital
lobe
Left cerebral
hemisphere
Cerebral veins
and arteries
covered by
arachnoid
mater
Longitudinal
fissure
Posterior
(a) Superior view
Anterior
(d) Location of the insula lobe
Frontal lobe
Temporal lobe
(pulled down)
Gyri of
insula
Figure 12.4
Lobes, sulci, and fissures of the cerebral hemispheres.
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