328
UNIT 2
Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
10
Table 10.2
Muscles of the Head, Part II: Mastication and
Tongue Movement (Figure 10.8); pp. 332–333.
Table 10.3
Muscles of the Anterior Neck and ±roat: Swal-
lowing (Figure 10.9); pp. 334–335.
Table 10.4
Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Head
Movements and Trunk Extension (Figure 10.10); pp. 336–339.
Table 10.5
Deep Muscles of the ±orax: Breathing (Fig-
ure 10.11); pp. 340–341.
Table 10.6
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall: Trunk Move-
ments and Compression of Abdominal Viscera (Fig-
ure 10.12); pp. 342–343.
Table 10.7
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum: Sup-
port of Abdominopelvic Organs (Figure 10.13); pp. 344–345.
Table 10.8
Superficial Muscles of the Anterior and Posterior
±orax: Movements of the Scapula and Arm (Figure 10.14);
pp. 346–349.
Table 10.9
Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements
of the Arm (Humerus) (Figure 10.15); pp. 350–352.
Table 10.10
Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint: Flexion and
Extension of the Forearm (Figure 10.15); p. 353.
Table 10.11
Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist,
Hand, and Fingers (Figures 10.16 and 10.17); pp. 354–357.
Table 10.12
Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the
Arm, Forearm, and Hand (Figure 10.18); pp. 358–359.
Table 10.13
Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Fine Movements
of the Fingers (Figure 10.19); pp. 360–362.
Table 10.14
Muscles Crossing the Hip and Knee Joints:
Movements of the ±igh and Leg (Figures 10.20 and 10.21);
pp. 363–369.
Table 10.15
Muscles of the Leg: Movements of the Ankle
and Toes (Figures 10.22 to 10.24); pp. 370–375.
Table 10.16
Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Toe Movement
and Arch Support (Figure 10.25); pp. 376–379.
Table 10.17
Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the
±igh, Leg, and Foot (Figure 10.26); pp. 380–381.
±e tables that follow group the muscles of the body by func-
tion and by location, roughly from head to foot. Each table is
keyed to a particular figure or group of figures illustrating the
muscles it describes. ±e legend at the beginning of each table
summarizes the types of movements produced by the muscles
listed and gives pointers on the way those muscles interact with
one another. ±e table itself describes each muscle’s shape, loca-
tion relative to other muscles, origin and insertion, primary ac-
tions, and innervation. (Some instructors want students to defer
learning the muscle innervations until they study the nervous
system, so check on what is expected of you in this regard.)
As you consider each muscle, we recommend the following
plan of action:
1.
Be alert to the information provided by the muscle’s name.
2.
Read its entire description and identify the muscle on the
corresponding figure. If it’s a superficial muscle, also iden-
tify it on Figure 10.5 or Figure 10.6. Doing so will help you
to link the description in the table to a visual image of the
muscle’s location in the body.
3.
Relate the muscle’s attachments and location to its actions.
±is will focus your attention on functional details that
o²en escape student awareness. For example, both the el-
bow and knee joints are hinge joints that allow flexion and
extension. However, the knee flexes to the dorsum of the
body (the calf moves toward the posterior thigh), whereas
elbow flexion carries the forearm toward the anterior as-
pect of the arm. ±erefore, leg flexors are located on the
posterior thigh, while forearm flexors are found on the
anterior aspect of the humerus. A visual example of this
relationship is shown in Figure 10.1a and b with the action
of the muscles acting at the shoulder. Because many mus-
cles have several actions, we indicate the
primary action of
each muscle in blue type in the tables.
4.
Finally, keep in mind the
best
way to learn muscle actions:
Act out their movements yourself while feeling for the
muscles contracting (bulging) beneath your skin.
Now you are ready to tackle these tables:
Table 10.1
Muscles of the Head, Part I: Facial Expression
(Figure 10.7); pp. 329–331.
(Text continues on p. 382.)
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