elcome to the study of one of the most fascinating subjects
possible—your own body. Such a study is not only highly personal, but
timely as well. We get news of some medical advance almost daily. To ap-
preciate emerging discoveries in genetic engineering, to understand new techniques
for detecting and treating disease, and to make use of published facts on how to stay
healthy, you’ll find it helpful to learn about the workings of your body. If you are
preparing for a career in the health sciences, the study of anatomy and physiology
has added rewards because it provides the foundation needed to support your clini-
cal experiences.
In this chapter we define and contrast anatomy and physiology and discuss how the
human body is organized. ±en we review needs and functional processes common to all
living organisms. ±ree essential concepts—
the complementarity of structure and function,
The Human Body:
An Orientation
An Overview of Anatomy and
(pp. 2–3)
Topics of Anatomy (p. 2)
Topics of Physiology (pp. 2–3)
Complementarity of Structure
and Function (p. 3)
Levels of Structural Organization
(pp. 3–4)
Maintaining Life
(pp. 4–8)
Necessary Life Functions (pp. 4–8)
Survival Needs (p. 8)
(pp. 8–11)
Homeostatic Control (pp. 9–11)
Homeostatic Imbalance (p. 11)
The Language of Anatomy
(pp. 11–20)
Anatomical Position and Directional
Terms (pp. 11–13)
Regional Terms (p. 13)
Anatomical Variability (p. 14)
Body Planes and Sections (p. 14)
Body Cavities and Membranes (pp. 14–20)
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