xxxiv
Contents
Adjustments of the Infant to Extrauterine Life
1087
Taking±the±First±Breath±and±Transition±•±Occlusion±of±Special±
Fetal Blood Vessels and Vascular Shunts
Lactation
1087
Assisted Reproductive Technology and Reproductive
Cloning
1089
A C L O S E R L O O K
Contraception: To Be or Not To Be
1090
29
Heredity
1095
The Vocabulary of Genetics
1096
Gene±Pairs±(Alleles)±•±Genotype±and±Phenotype± ±
Sexual Sources of Genetic Variation
1097
Chromosome Segregation and Independent Assortment
•±Crossover±of±Homologues±and±Gene±Recombination±•±
Random Fertilization
Types of Inheritance
1099
Dominant-Recessive±Inheritance±•±Incomplete±Dominance±
•±Multiple-Allele±Inheritance±•±Sex-Linked±Inheritance±•±
Polygene Inheritance
Environmental Factors in Gene Expression
1102
Nontraditional Inheritance
1102
Beyond±DNA:±Regulation±of±Gene±Expression±•±Extranuclear±
(Mitochondrial) Inheritance
Genetic Screening, Counseling, and Therapy
1103
Carrier±Recognition±•±Fetal±Testing±•±Human±Gene±²erapy± ±
Appendices
A
The Metric System
A-1
B
Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
A-3
C
The Amino Acids
A-4
D
Two Important Metabolic Pathways
A-5
E
Periodic Table of the Elements
A-8
F
Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine Studies
A-9
G
Focus on Innervation of the Upper Limb
A-14
Focus on Innervation of the Lower Limb
A-16
H
Answers to Check Your Understanding, Multiple Choice,
Matching Questions, and Case Study
A-18
Glossary
G-1
Photo and Illustration Credits
C-1
Index
I-1
Continuity
UNIT 5
27
The Reproductive System
1018
Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
1019
²e±Scrotum±•±²e±Testes±•±²e±Male±Perineum±•±²e±Penis±•±
²e±Male±Duct±System±•±Male±Accessory±Glands±•±Semen± ±
Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
1026
Male±Sexual±Response±•±Spermatogenesis±•±Hormonal±
Regulation of Male Reproductive Function
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
1035
²e±Ovaries±•±²e±Female±Duct±System±•±²e±External±
Genitalia±•±²e±Female±Perineum±•±²e±Mammary±Glands± ±
Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
1043
Oogenesis±•±²e±Ovarian±Cycle±•±Hormonal±Regulation±of±the±
Ovarian±Cycle±•±²e±Uterine±(Menstrual)±Cycle±•±E³ects±of±
Estrogens±and±Progesterone±•±Female±Sexual±Response± ±
Sexually Transmitted Infections
1053
Gonorrhea±•±Syphilis±•±Chlamydia±•±Trichomoniasis±•±Genital±
Warts±•±Genital±Herpes± ±
Developmental Aspects of the Reproductive System
1054
Embryological±and±Fetal±Events±•±Puberty±•±Menopause± ±
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
1059
28
Pregnancy and Human
Development
1064
From Egg to Zygote
1065
Accomplishing Fertilization
Events of Embryonic Development: Zygote to Blastocyst
Implantation
1067
Cleavage±and±Blastocyst±Formation±•±Implantation±•±
Placentation
Events of Embryonic Development: Gastrula to Fetus
1074
Formation and Roles of the Extraembryonic Membranes
•±Gastrulation:±Germ±Layer±Formation±•±Organogenesis:±
Differentiation of the Germ Layers
Events of Fetal Development
1081
Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
1082
Anatomical±Changes±•±Metabolic±Changes±•±Physiological±
Changes
Parturition (Birth)
1085
Initiation±of±Labor±•±Stages±of±Labor± ±
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