Contents
xxxiii
The Metabolic Role of the Liver
935
Cholesterol Metabolism and Regulation of Blood Cholesterol
Levels
Energy Balance
938
Obesity±•±Regulation±of±Food±Intake±•±Metabolic±Rate±and±Heat±
Production±•±Regulation±of±Body±Temperature± ±
Developmental Aspects of Nutrition and Metabolism
948
A C L O S E R L O O K
Obesity: Magical Solution Wanted
942
25
The Urinary System
954
Kidney Anatomy
955
Location±and±External±Anatomy±•±Internal±Gross±Anatomy±•±
Blood±and±Nerve±Supply±•±Nephrons± ±
Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine Formation
963
Urine±Formation,±Step±1:±Glomerular±Filtration±•±Urine±Formation,±
Step±2:±Tubular±Reabsorption±•±Urine±Formation,±Step±3:±Tubular±
Secretion±•±Regulation±of±Urine±Concentration±and±Volume± ±
Clinical Evaluation of Kidney Function
977
Renal±Clearance±•±Urine± ±
Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination
979
Ureters±•±Urinary±Bladder±•±Urethra±•±Micturition± ±
Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System
982
26
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base
Balance
990
Body Fluids
991
Body±Water±Content±•±Fluid±Compartments±•±Composition±
of±Body±Fluids±•±Fluid±Movement±Among±Compartments± ±
Water Balance and ECF Osmolality
993
Regulation±of±Water±Intake±•±Regulation±of±Water±Output±•±
In²uence±of±Antidiuretic±Hormone±(ADH)±•±Disorders±of±
Water Balance
Electrolyte Balance
997
Te Central Role of Sodium in Fluid and Electrolyte
Balance±•±Regulation±of±Sodium±Balance±•±Regulation±of±
Potassium±Balance±•±Regulation±of±Calcium±and±Phosphate±
Balance±•±Regulation±of±Anions± ±
Acid-Base Balance
1004
Chemical±Bu³er±Systems±•±Respiratory±Regulation±of±H
1
±•±
Renal±Mechanisms±of±Acid-Base±Balance±•±Abnormalities±
of Acid-Base Balance
Developmental Aspects of Fluid, Electrolyte,
and Acid-Base Balance
1012
A C L O S E R L O O K
Sleuthing: Using Blood Values to Determine the
Cause of Acidosis or Alkalosis
1011
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
1013
Alimentary±Canal±•±Enteric±Nervous±System±of±the±Alimentary±
Canal
PART 2
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM
856
The Mouth and Associated Organs
856
´e±Mouth±•±´e±Tongue±•±´e±Salivary±Glands±•±´e±Teeth± ±
The Pharynx
861
The Esophagus
862
Digestive Processes: Mouth to Esophagus
863
The Stomach
864
Gross±Anatomy±•±Microscopic±Anatomy±•±Digestive±Processes±
in±the±Stomach±•±Regulation±of±Gastric±Secretion±•±Regulation±
of Gastric Motility and Emptying
The Small Intestine and Associated Structures
874
´e±Small±Intestine±•±´e±Liver±and±Gallbladder±•±´e±Pancreas±
•±Regulation±of±Bile±and±Pancreatic±Secretion±and±Entry±into±
the±Small±Intestine±•±Digestive±Processes±in±the±Small±Intestine± ±
The Large Intestine
887
Gross±Anatomy±•±Microscopic±Anatomy±•±Bacterial±Flora±•±
Digestive Processes in the Large Intestine
PART 3
PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION
AND ABSORPTION
892
Digestion
892
Mechanism±of±Digestion:±Enzymatic±Hydrolysis±•±Digestion±of±
Carbohydrates±•±Digestion±of±Proteins±•±Digestion±of±Lipids±•±
Digestion of Nucleic Acids
Absorption
895
Carbohydrate±Absorption±•±Protein±Absorption±•±Lipid±Absorp
-
tion±•±Nucleic±Acid±Absorption±•±Vitamin±Absorption±•±Electrolyte±
Absorption±•±Water±Absorption±•±Malabsorption±of±Nutrients± ±
Developmental Aspects of the Digestive System
898
Digestive±System±Aµer±Birth±•±Aging±and±the±Digestive±System±±
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
900
24
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body
Temperature Regulation
906
Diet and Nutrition
907
Carbohydrates±•±Lipids±•±Proteins±•±Vitamins±•±Minerals± ±
Overview of Metabolic Reactions
913
Anabolism±and±Catabolism±•±Oxidation-Reduction±Reactions±
and±the±Role±of±Coenzymes±•±ATP±Synthesis± ±
Metabolism of Major Nutrients
917
Carbohydrate±Metabolism±•±Lipid±Metabolism±•±Protein±
Metabolism
Metabolic States of the Body
930
Catabolic-Anabolic±Steady±State±of±the±Body±•±Absorptive±State±
•±Postabsorptive±State± ±
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