Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
immediately after he grabs the bar? As his body begins to
move upward toward the bar? When his body begins to
approach the mat?
For answers, see Appendix H.
Describe three ways in which ATP is regenerated during
skeletal muscle contraction.
Deﬁne EPOC and muscle fatigue. List possible causes of
Providing Energy for Contraction
As a muscle contracts, ATP supplies the energy to move and
detach cross bridges, operate the calcium pump in the SR, and
to the cell exterior and interior respectively
afer excitation-contraction coupling. Surprisingly, muscles store
very limited reserves oF ATP—4 to 6 seconds’ worth at most, just
enough to get you going. Because ATP is the
used directly For contractile activities, it must be regenerated as
Fast as it is broken down iF contraction is to continue.
±ortunately, afer ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic
phosphate in muscle ﬁbers, it is regenerated within a Fraction oF
a second by one or more oF the three pathways summarized in
: (1) direct phosphorylation oF ADP by creatine phos-
phate, (2) anaerobic, glycolysis, which converts glucose to lactic
acid, and (3) aerobic respiration. All body cells use glycolysis and
aerobic respiration to produce ATP, so we touch on them here but
describe them in detail later, in Chapter 24.
Direct Phosphorylation of ADP by Creatine Phosphate (Fig-
As we begin to exercise vigorously, the demand For
ATP soars and consumes the ATP stored in working muscles
within a Few twitches. ²en
creatine phosphate (CP)
tin), a unique high-energy molecule stored in muscles, is tapped
to regenerate ATP while the metabolic pathways adjust to the
suddenly higher demand For ATP.
Coupling CP with ADP transFers energy and a phosphate
group From CP to ADP to Form ATP almost instantly:
Muscle cells store two to three times more CP than ATP. ²e
CP-ADP reaction, catalyzed by the enzyme
so eﬃcient that the amount oF ATP in muscle cells changes very
little during the initial period oF contraction.
Together, stored ATP and CP provide For maximum muscle
power For about 15 seconds—long enough to energize a 100-meter
dash (slightly longer iF the activity is less vigorous). ²e coupled
reaction is readily reversible, and to keep CP “on tap,” CP reserves
are replenished during periods oF rest or inactivity.
Anaerobic Pathway: Glycolysis and Lactic Acid Formation
As stored ATP and CP are exhausted, more
ATP is generated by breaking down (catabolizing) glucose ob-
tained From the blood or glycogen stored in the muscle. ²e
initial phase oF glucose breakdown is
but it may be that the muscle stretching that occurs during eccen-
tric contractions causes microtears in the muscles.
Biceps curls provide a simple example oF how concentric and
eccentric contractions work together in our everyday activities.
When you ﬂex your elbow to raise this textbook to your shoul-
der, the biceps muscle in your arm is contracting concentrically.
When you straighten your arm to return the book to the desk-
top, the isotonic contraction oF your biceps is eccentric. Basi-
cally, eccentric contractions put the body in position to contract
concentrically. All jumping and throwing activities involve both
types oF contraction.
measure), tension may
build to the muscle’s peak tension-producing capacity, but the mus-
neither shortens nor lengthens
(±igure 9.18b). Isometric contrac-
tions occur when a muscle attempts to move a load that is greater
than the Force (tension) the muscle is able to develop—think oF try-
ing to lif a piano single-handedly. Muscles contract isometrically
when they act primarily to maintain upright posture or to hold
joints stationary while movements occur at other joints.
Consider a knee bend. When you squat For a Few seconds, the
quadriceps muscles oF your anterior thigh contract isometrically to
hold your knee in the ﬂexed position. When you start to rise to the
upright position, they continue to contract isometrically until their
tension exceeds the load (weight oF your upper body). At that point
muscle shortening (concentric contraction) begins. So the quadri-
ceps contractile sequence For a deep knee bend From start to ﬁn-
ish is (1) ﬂex knee (eccentric), (2) hold squat position (isometric),
(3) extend knee (isometric, then concentric). OF course, this list
does not even begin to consider the isometric contractions oF the
posterior thigh muscles or oF the trunk muscles that maintain a
relatively erect trunk posture during this movement.
Electrochemical and mechanical events occurring within a
muscle are identical in both isotonic and isometric contractions.
However, the results are diﬀerent. In isotonic contractions, the
thin ﬁlaments slide. In isometric contractions, the cross bridges
generate Force but do
move the thin ﬁlaments, so there is no
change in the banding pattern From that oF the resting state. (You
could say that they are “spinning their wheels” on the same actin
Skeletal muscles are described as voluntary, but even relaxed
muscles are almost always slightly contracted, a phenomenon
. Muscle tone is due to spinal reﬂexes that
activate ﬁrst one group oF motor units and then another in re-
sponse to activated stretch receptors in the muscles. Muscle
tone does not produce active movements, but it keeps the mus-
cles ﬁrm, healthy, and ready to respond to stimulation. Skeletal
muscle tone also helps stabilize joints and maintain posture.
Check Your Understanding
What is a motor unit?
What is happening in the muscle during the latent period of
a twitch contraction?
Jay is competing in a chin-up competition. What type of
muscle contractions are occurring in his biceps muscles