xxxii
Contents
Humoral Immune Response
778
Activation±and±Diferentiation±oF±B±Cells±•±Immunological±
Memory±•±Active±and±Passive±Humoral±Immunity±•±Antibodies± ±
Cellular Immune Response
784
MHC±Proteins±and±Antigen±Presentation±•±Activation±and±
Diferentiation±oF±T±Cells±•±Roles±oF±Speci²c±Efector±T±Cells±•±
Organ Transplants and Prevention of Rejection
Homeostatic Imbalances of Immunity
792
Immunode²ciencies±•±Autoimmune±Diseases±•±
Hypersensitivities
Developmental Aspects of the Immune System
796
22
The Respiratory System
801
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
802
³e±Nose±and±Paranasal±Sinuses±•±³e±Pharynx±•±³e±Larynx±•±
³e±Trachea±•±³e±Bronchi±and±Subdivisions±•±³e±Lungs±and±
Pleurae
Mechanics of Breathing
816
Pressure±Relationships±in±the±³oracic±Cavity±•±Pulmonary±
Ventilation±•±Physical±´actors±Inµuencing±Pulmonary±
Ventilation±•±Respiratory±Volumes±and±Pulmonary±´unction±
Tests±•±Nonrespiratory±Air±Movements± ±
Gas Exchanges Between the Blood, Lungs,
and Tissues
824
Basic±Properties±oF±Gases±•±Composition±oF±Alveolar±Gas±•±
External±Respiration±•±Internal±Respiration± ±
Transport of Respiratory Gases by Blood
828
Oxygen±Transport±•±Carbon±Dioxide±Transport± ±
Control of Respiration
834
Neural±Mechanisms±•±´actors±Inµuencing±Breathing±Rate±
and Depth
Respiratory Adjustments
838
Exercise±•±High±Altitude± ±
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Respiratory System
839
Chronic±Obstructive±Pulmonary±Disease±(COPD)±•±Asthma±•±
Tuberculosis±(TB)±•±Lung±Cancer± ±
Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System
841
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
843
23
The Digestive System
849
PART 1
OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
850
Digestive Processes
851
Basic Functional Concepts
852
Digestive System Organs: Relationships
852
Relationship±oF±the±Digestive±Organs±to±the±Peritoneum±•±
Blood±Supply:±³e±Splanchnic±Circulation±•±Histology±oF±the±
Table 19.4 The Aorta and Major Arteries of the Systemic
Circulation
724
Table 19.5 Arteries of the Head and Neck
726
Table 19.6 Arteries of the Upper Limbs and Thorax
728
Table 19.7 Arteries of the Abdomen
730
Table 19.8 Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
734
Table 19.9 The Venae Cavae and the Major Veins
of the Systemic Circulation
736
Table 19.10 Veins of the Head and Neck
738
Table 19.11 Veins of the Upper Limbs and Thorax
740
Table 19.12 Veins of the Abdomen
742
Table 19.13 Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
744
Developmental Aspects of Blood Vessels
745
A C L O S E R L O O K
Atherosclerosis? Get Out the Cardiovascular
Dra
-
no
700
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
746
20
The Lymphatic System and Lymphoid
Organs and Tissues
751
Lymphatic System
752
Distribution±and±Structure±oF±Lymphatic±Vessels±•±
Lymph Transport
Lymphoid Cells and Tissues
754
Lymphoid±Cells±•±Lymphoid±Tissue± ±
Lymph Nodes
755
Structure±oF±a±Lymph±Node±•±Circulation±in±the±Lymph±Nodes±±
Other Lymphoid Organs
757
Spleen±•±³ymus±•±Mucosa-Associated±Lymphoid±Tissue±(MALT)
Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic System
and Lymphoid Organs and Tissues
759
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
761
21
The Immune System: Innate
and Adaptive Body Defenses
764
PART 1
INNATE DEFENSES
765
Surface Barriers: Skin and Mucosae
765
Internal Innate Defenses: Cells and Chemicals
766
Phagocytes±•±Natural±Killer±(NK)±Cells±•±Inµammation:±
Tissue±Response±to±Injury±•±Antimicrobial±Proteins±•±´ever± ±
PART 2
ADAPTIVE DEFENSES
773
Antigens
773
Complete±Antigens±and±Haptens±•±Antigenic±Determinants±•±
Self-Antigens: MHC Proteins
Cells of the Adaptive Immune System: An Overview
774
Lymphocytes±•±Antigen-Presenting±Cells±(APCs)± ±
previous page 32 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 34 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off