Contents
xxxi
Cardiac Muscle Fibers
671
Microscopic±Anatomy±•±Mechanism±and±Events±
of±Contraction±•±Energy±Requirements± ±
Heart Physiology
674
Electrical±Events±•±Heart±Sounds±•±Mechanical±Events:±
Te±Cardiac±Cycle±•±Cardiac±Output± ±
Developmental Aspects of the Heart
685
Before±Birth±•±Heart±Function±Troughout±Life± ±
19
The Cardiovascular System:
Blood Vessels
692
PART 1
BLOOD VESSEL STRUCTURE
AND FUNCTION
693
Structure of Blood Vessel Walls
693
Arterial System
693
Elastic±Arteries±•±Muscular±Arteries±•±Arterioles± ±
Capillaries
696
²ypes±of±Capillaries±•±Capillary±Beds± ±
Venous System
698
Venules±•±Veins± ±
Vascular Anastomoses
699
PART 2
PHYSIOLOGY OF CIRCULATION
701
Introduction to Blood Flow, Blood Pressure,
and Resistance
701
De³nition±of±²erms±•±Relationship±Between±Flow,±Pressure,±
and Resistance
Systemic Blood Pressure
702
Arterial±Blood±Pressure±•±Capillary±Blood±Pressure±•±Venous±
Blood Pressure
Maintaining Blood Pressure
704
Short-²erm±Regulation:±Neural±Controls±•±Short-²erm±
Regulation:±Hormonal±Controls±•±Long-²erm±Regulation:±
Renal±Mechanisms±•±Clinical±Monitoring±of±Circulatory±
E´ciency±•±Homeostatic±Imbalances±in±Blood±Pressure± ±
Blood Flow Through Body Tissues: Tissue Perfusion
711
Velocity±of±Blood±Flow±•±Autoregulation:±Local±Regulation±
of±Blood±Flow±•±Blood±Flow±in±Special±Areas±•±Blood±Flow±
Trough±Capillaries±and±Capillary±Dynamics±•±
Circulatory Shock
PART 3
CIRCULATORY PATHWAYS:
BLOOD VESSELS OF THE BODY
721
The Two Main Circulations of the Body
721
Systemic Arteries and Veins: Differences in Pathways
and Courses
721
Principal Vessels of the Systemic Circulation
721
Table 19.3 Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations
722
Release±•±Half-Life,±Onset,±and±Duration±of±Hormone±
Activity±•±Interaction±of±Hormones±at±²arget±Cells± ±
The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
598
Pituitary-Hypothalamic±Relationships±•±Te±Posterior±Pituitary±
and±Hypothalamic±Hormones±•±Anterior±Pituitary±Hormones± ±
The Thyroid Gland
606
Location±and±Structure±•±Tyroid±Hormone±(²H)±•±Calcitonin±±
The Parathyroid Glands
610
The Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands
611
Te±Adrenal±Cortex±•±Te±Adrenal±Medulla± ±
The Pineal Gland
617
Other Endocrine Glands and Tissues
618
Te±Pancreas±•±Te±Gonads±and±Placenta±•±Hormone±Secretion±
by Other Organs
Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System
623
A CLOSER LOOK
Sweet Revenge: Taming the DM Monster?
624
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
626
Maintenance of the Body
UNIT 4
17
Blood
631
Overview: Blood Composition and Functions
632
Components±•±Physical±Characteristics±and±Volume±•±Functions
Blood Plasma
633
Formed Elements
634
Erythrocytes±(Red±Blood±Cells)±•±Leukocytes±(White±Blood±
Cells)±•±Platelets± ±
Hemostasis
646
Step±1:±Vascular±Spasm±•±Step±2:±Platelet±Plug±Formation±•±Step±
3:±Coagulation±•±Clot±Retraction±and±Fibrinolysis±•±Factors±
Limiting±Clot±Growth±or±Formation±•±Disorders±of±Hemostasis±±
Transfusion and Blood Replacement
651
²ransfusing±Red±Blood±Cells±•±Restoring±Blood±Volume± ±
Diagnostic Blood Tests
653
Developmental Aspects of Blood
654
18
The Cardiovascular System:
The Heart
658
The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits
659
Heart Anatomy
659
Size,±Location,±and±Orientation±•±Coverings±of±the±Heart±•±
Layers±of±the±Heart±Wall±•±Chambers±and±Associated±Great±
Vessels±•±Heart±Valves±•±Pathway±of±Blood±Trough±the±
Heart±•±Coronary±Circulation± ±
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