xxx
Contents
PART 4
REFLEX ACTIVITY
513
The Reflex Arc
513
Components of a Reflex Arc
Spinal Reflexes
513
Stretch±and±Tendon±Refexes±•±²e±Flexor±and±Crossed-
Extensor±Refexes±•±Super³cial±Refexes± ±
Developmental Aspects of the Peripheral Nervous
System
519
14
The Autonomic Nervous
System
524
Overview
524
Comparison of the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous
Systems±•±ANS±Divisions± ±
ANS Anatomy
527
Parasympathetic±(Craniosacral)±Division±•±Sympathetic±
(²oracolumbar)±Division±•±Visceral±Refexes± ±
ANS Physiology
533
Neurotransmitters±and±Receptors±•±²e±E´ects±oµ±Drugs±
•±Interactions±oµ±the±Autonomic±Divisions±•±Control±oµ±
Autonomic Function
Homeostatic Imbalances of the ANS
539
Developmental Aspects of the ANS
539
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
540
15
The Special Senses
544
The Eye and Vision
545
Accessory±Structures±oµ±the±Eye±•±Structure±oµ±the±Eyeball±•±
Optics±and±the±Eye±•±Photoreceptors±and±Phototransduction±•±
Visual Pathways and Processing
The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste
565
Olµactory±Epithelium±and±the±Sense±oµ±Smell±•±Taste±Buds±and±
the±Sense±oµ±Taste±•±Homeostatic±Imbalances±oµ±the±Chemical±
Senses
The Ear: Hearing and Balance
570
Structure±oµ±the±Ear±•±Physiology±oµ±Hearing±•±Equilibrium±
and±Orientation±•±Homeostatic±Imbalances±oµ±Hearing±and±
Equilibrium
Developmental Aspects of the Special Senses
584
Taste±and±Smell±•±Vision±•±Hearing±and±Balance± ±
16
The Endocrine System
591
The Endocrine System: An Overview
592
Hormones
593
²e±Chemistry±oµ±Hormones±•±Mechanisms±oµ±Hormone±
Action±•±Target±Cell±Speci³city±•±Control±oµ±Hormone±
12
The Central Nervous System
428
The Brain
429
Embryonic±Development±•±Regions±and±Organization±•±
Ventricles±•±Cerebral±Hemispheres±•±Diencephalon±•±
Brain±Stem±•±Cerebellum±•±Functional±Brain±Systems± ±
Higher Mental Functions
452
Brain±Wave±Patterns±and±the±EEG±•±Consciousness±•±
Sleep±and±Sleep-Wake±Cycles±•±Language±•±Memory± ±
Protection of the Brain
458
Meninges±•±Cerebrospinal±Fluid±(CSF)±•±Blood±Brain±Barrier± ±
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Brain
462
Traumatic±Brain±Injuries±•±Cerebrovascular±Accidents±
(CVAs)±•±Degenerative±Brain±Disorders± ±
The Spinal Cord
464
Gross±Anatomy±and±Protection±•±Spinal±Cord±Cross-Sectional±
Anatomy±•±Neuronal±Pathways±•±Spinal±Cord±Trauma±and±
Disorders
Diagnostic Procedures for Assessing CNS Dysfunction
474
Developmental Aspects of the Central Nervous
System
475
13
Peripheral Nervous System
and Reflex Activity
483
PART 1
SENSORY RECEPTORS AND SENSATION
484
Sensory Receptors
484
Classi³cation±by±Stimulus±Type±•±Classi³cation±by±Location±•±
Classification by Receptor Structure
Sensory Integration: From Sensation to Perception
487
General±Organization±oµ±the±Somatosensory±System±•±
Perception of Pain
PART 2
TRANSMISSION LINES: NERVES AND THEIR
STRUCTURE AND REPAIR
490
Nerves and Associated Ganglia
490
Structure±and±Classi³cation±•±Regeneration±oµ±Nerve±Fibers± ±
Cranial Nerves
492
An±Overview±•±Composition±oµ±Cranial±Nerves± ±
Spinal Nerves
501
Innervation of Specific Body Regions
PART 3
MOTOR ENDINGS AND MOTOR ACTIVITY
511
Peripheral Motor Endings
511
Innervation±oµ±Skeletal±Muscle±•±Innervation±oµ±Visceral±
Muscle and Glands
Motor Integration: From Intention to Effect
511
Levels of Motor Control
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