274
UNIT 2
Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
5.
Arthritis is joint inflammation or degeneration accompanied
by stiffness, pain, and swelling. Acute forms generally result
from bacterial infection. Chronic forms include osteoarthritis,
rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis.
6.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition most common in the
aged. Spine, knees, hips, knuckles, and fingers are most affected.
7.
Rheumatoid arthritis, the most crippling arthritis, is an
autoimmune disease involving severe inflammation of the joints.
8.
Gouty arthritis, or gout, is joint inflammation caused by the
deposit of urate salts in soF joint tissues.
9.
Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the bite of a tick
infected with spirochete bacteria.
Developmental Aspects of Joints
(pp. 272–273)
1.
Joints form from mesenchyme and in tandem with bone
development in the embryo.
2.
Excluding traumatic injury, joints usually function well until
late middle age, at which time symptoms of connective tissue
stiffening and osteoarthritis begin to appear. Prudent exercise
delays these effects, whereas excessive exercise promotes the early
onset of arthritis.
weight bearing. Its articular surfaces are deep and secure. Its
capsule is heavy and strongly reinforced by ligaments.
16.
Te temporomandibular joint is formed by (1) the condylar
process of the mandible and (2) the mandibular fossa and
articular tubercle of the temporal bone. Tis joint allows both
a hingelike opening and closing of the mouth and an anterior
gliding of the mandible. It oFen dislocates anteriorly and exhibits
a number of ±MJ disorders.
Homeostatic Imbalances of Joints
(pp. 269–272)
Common Joint Injuries
(pp. 269–270)
1.
Cartilage injuries, particularly of the knee, are common in contact
sports and may result from excessive compression and shear
stress. Te avascular cartilage is unable to repair itself.
2.
Sprains involve stretching or tearing of joint ligaments. Because
ligaments are poorly vascularized, healing is slow.
3.
Dislocations involve displacement of the articular surfaces of
bones. Tey must be reduced.
Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions
(pp. 270–272)
4.
Bursitis and tendonitis are inflammations of a bursa and a tendon
sheath, respectively.
Multiple Choice/Matching
(Some questions have more than one correct answer. Select the best
answer or answers from the choices given.)
1.
Match the key terms to the appropriate descriptions.
Key:
(a)
fibrous joints
(b)
cartilaginous joints
(c)
synovial joints
____
(1)
exhibit a joint cavity
____
(2)
types are sutures and syndesmoses
____
(3)
bones connected by collagen fibers
____
(4)
types include synchondroses and symphyses
____
(5)
all are diarthrotic
____
(6)
many are amphiarthrotic
____
(7)
bones connected by a disc of hyaline cartilage or
fibrocartilage
____
(8)
nearly all are synarthrotic
____
(9)
shoulder, hip, jaw, and elbow joints
2.
²reely movable joints are
(a)
synarthroses,
(b)
diarthroses,
(c)
amphiarthroses.
3.
Anatomical characteristics shared by all synovial joints include
all except
(a)
articular cartilage,
(b)
a joint cavity,
(c)
an articular
capsule,
(d)
presence of fibrocartilage.
4.
²actors that influence the stability of a synovial joint include
(a)
shape of articular surfaces,
(b)
presence of strong reinforcing
ligaments,
(c)
tone of surrounding muscles,
(d)
all of these.
5.
Te description “Articular surfaces deep and secure; capsule
heavily reinforced by ligaments and muscle tendons; extremely
stable joint” best describes
(a)
the elbow joint,
(b)
the hip joint,
(c)
the knee joint,
(d)
the shoulder joint.
6.
Ankylosis means
(a)
twisting of the ankle,
(b)
tearing of
ligaments,
(c)
displacement of a bone,
(d)
immobility of a joint
due to fusion of its articular surfaces.
7.
An autoimmune disorder in which joints are affected bilaterally
and which involves pannus formation and gradual joint
immobilization is
(a)
bursitis,
(b)
gout,
(c)
osteoarthritis,
(d)
rheumatoid arthritis.
Short Answer Essay Questions
8.
Define joint.
9.
Discuss the relative value (to body homeostasis) of immovable,
slightly movable, and freely movable joints.
10.
Compare the structure, function, and common body locations of
bursae and tendon sheaths.
11.
Joint movements may be nonaxial, uniaxial, biaxial, or multiaxial.
Define what each of these terms means.
12.
Compare and contrast the paired movements of flexion and
extension with adduction and abduction.
13.
How does rotation differ from circumduction?
14.
Name two types of uniaxial, biaxial, and multiaxial joints.
15.
What is the specific role of the menisci of the knee? Of the
anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments?
16.
Te knee has been called “a beauty and a beast.” Provide several
reasons that might explain the negative (beast) part of this
description.
17.
Why are sprains and cartilage injuries a particular problem?
18.
List the functions of the following elements of a synovial
joint: fibrous layer of the capsule, synovial fluid, articular
cartilage.
Critical Thinking
and Clinical Application
Questions
1.
Sophie worked cleaning homes for 30 years so she could send her
two children to college. Several times, she had been forced to call
her employers to tell them she could not come in to work because
one of her kneecaps was swollen and painful. What is Sophie’s
condition, and what probably caused it?
Review Questions
8
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