Contents
xxix
Table 10.7 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum:
Support of Abdominopelvic Organs
344
Table 10.8 Superficial Muscles of the Anterior and Posterior
Thorax: Movements of the Scapula and Arm
346
Table 10.9 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint:
Movements of the Arm (Humerus)
350
Table 10.10 Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint:
Flexion and Extension of the Forearm
353
Table 10.11 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements
of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
354
Table 10.12 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting
on the Arm, Forearm, and Hand
358
Table 10.13 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand:
Fine Movements of the Fingers
360
Table 10.14 Muscles Crossing the Hip and Knee Joints:
Movements of the Thigh and Leg
363
Table 10.15 Muscles of the Leg: Movements of the Ankle
and Toes
370
Table 10.16 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Toe Movement
and Arch Support
376
Table 10.17 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting
on the Thigh, Leg, and Foot
380
Homeostatic Imbalances of Joints
269
Common±Joint±Injuries±•±Infammatory±and±Degenerative±
Conditions
Developmental Aspects of Joints
272
A C L O S E R L O O K
Joints: From Knights in Shining Armor
to Bionic Humans
271
9
Muscles and Muscle Tissue
276
Overview of Muscle Tissues
276
Types±oF±Muscle±Tissue±•±Special±Characteristics±oF±Muscle±
Tissue±•±Muscle±²unctions± ±
Skeletal Muscle
278
Gross±Anatomy±oF±a±Skeletal±Muscle±•±Microscopic±Anatomy±
oF±a±Skeletal±Muscle±²iber±•±Sliding±²ilament±Model±oF±
Contraction±•±Physiology±oF±Skeletal±Muscle±²ibers±•±
Contraction±oF±a±Skeletal±Muscle±•±Muscle±Metabolism±•±²orce±
oF±Muscle±Contraction±•±Velocity±and±Duration±oF±Contraction±
•±Adaptations±to±Exercise± ±
Smooth Muscle
305
Microscopic±Structure±oF±Smooth±Muscle±²ibers±•±Contraction±
oF±Smooth±Muscle±•±Types±oF±Smooth±Muscle± ±
Developmental Aspects of Muscles
312
A C L O S E R L O O K
Athletes Looking Good and Doing Better
with Anabolic Steroids?
313
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
314
10
The Muscular System
319
Actions and Interactions of Skeletal Muscles
319
Naming Skeletal Muscles
320
Muscle Mechanics: Importance of Fascicle Arrangement
and Leverage
322
Arrangement±oF±²ascicles±•±Lever±Systems:±Bone-Muscle±
Relationships
Major Skeletal Muscles of the Body
324
Table 10.1 Muscles of the Head, Part I: Facial
Expression
329
Table 10.2 Muscles of the Head, Part II: Mastication
and Tongue Movement
332
Table 10.3 Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat:
Swallowing
334
Table 10.4 Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column:
Head Movements and Trunk Extension
336
Table 10.5 Deep Muscles of the Thorax: Breathing
340
Table 10.6 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall: Trunk
Movements and Compression of Abdominal Viscera
342
Regulation and Integration
of the Body
UNIT 3
11
Fundamentals of the Nervous System
and Nervous Tissue
386
Functions and Divisions of the Nervous System
387
Histology of Nervous Tissue
387
Neuroglia±•±Neurons± ±
Membrane Potentials
395
Basic±Principles±oF±Electricity±•±
³e±Resting±Membrane±Potential±•±
Membrane Potentials Tat Act as Signals
The Synapse
407
Electrical±Synapses±•±Chemical±Synapses±•±Postsynaptic±
Potentials and Synaptic Integration
Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors
414
Classi´cation±oF±Neurotransmitters±by±Chemical±Structure±•±
Classi´cation±oF±Neurotransmitters±by±²unction±•±
Neurotransmitter Receptors
Basic Concepts of Neural Integration
421
Organization±oF±Neurons:±Neuronal±Pools±•±
Types±oF±Circuits±•±Patterns±oF±Neural±Processing± ±
Developmental Aspects of Neurons
423
A C L O S E R L O O K
Pleasure Me, Pleasure Me!
418
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