262
UNIT 2
Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
8
(a) Sagittal section through the right knee joint
Femur
Tendon of
quadriceps
femoris
Suprapatellar
bursa
Patella
Subcutaneous
prepatellar bursa
Synovial cavity
Lateral meniscus
Posterior
cruciate
ligament
Infrapatellar
fat pad
Deep infrapatellar
bursa
Patellar ligament
Articular
capsule
Lateral
meniscus
Anterior
cruciate
ligament
Tibia
(b) Superior view of the right tibia in the knee joint, showing
the menisci and cruciate ligaments
Medial
meniscus
Articular
cartilage
on medial
tibial condyle
Anterior
Anterior
cruciate
ligament
Articular
cartilage on
lateral tibial
condyle
Lateral
meniscus
Posterior
cruciate
ligament
Quadriceps
femoris
muscle
Tendon of
quadriceps
femoris
muscle
Patella
Lateral
patellar
retinaculum
Medial
patellar
retinaculum
Tibial
collateral
ligament
Tibia
Fibular
collateral
ligament
Fibula
(c) Anterior view of right knee
Patellar
ligament
Articular
capsule
Oblique
popliteal
ligament
Lateral
head of
gastrocnemius
muscle
Fibular
collateral
ligament
Arcuate
popliteal
ligament
Tibia
Femur
Medial head of
gastrocnemius
muscle
Tendon of
semimembranosus
muscle
(d) Posterior view of the joint capsule, including ligaments
Popliteus
muscle
(cut)
Tendon of
adductor
magnus
Bursa
Tibial
collateral
ligament
Figure 8.8
The knee joint.
Selected Synovial Joints
Describe the elbow, knee, hip, jaw, and shoulder joints in
terms of articulating bones, anatomical characteristics of
the joint, movements allowed, and joint stability.
In this section, we examine five joints in detail: knee, elbow,
shoulder, hip, and temporomandibular (jaw) joint. All have the
six distinguishing characteristics of synovial joints, and we will
not discuss these common features again. Instead, we will em-
phasize the unique structural features, functional abilities, and,
in certain cases, functional weaknesses of each of these joints.
Knee Joint
Te knee joint is the largest and most complex joint in the body
(Figure 8.8)
. Despite its single joint cavity, the knee consists of
three joints in one: an intermediate one between the patella and
the lower end of the femur (the
femoropatellar joint
), and lateral
and medial joints (collectively known as the
tibiofemoral joint
)
between the femoral condyles above and the C-shaped
menisci
,
or
semilunar cartilages
, of the tibia below (Figure 8.8b and e). Be-
sides deepening the shallow tibial articular surfaces, the menisci
help prevent side-to-side rocking of the femur on the tibia and ab-
sorb shock transmitted to the knee joint. However, the menisci are
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