xxviii
Contents
Bone Structure
177
Gross±Anatomy±•±Microscopic±Anatomy±of±Bone±•±Chemical±
Composition of Bone
Bone Development
183
Formation±of±the±Bony±Skeleton±•±Postnatal±Bone±Growth± ±
Bone Homeostasis: Remodeling and Repair
187
Bone±Remodeling±•±Bone±Repair± ±
Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone
192
Osteomalacia±and±Rickets±•±Osteoporosis±•±Paget’s±Disease± ±
Developmental Aspects of Bones: Timing of Events
193
Birth±to±Young±Adulthood±•±Age-Related±Changes±in±Bone± ±
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
195
7
The Skeleton
199
PART 1
THE AXIAL SKELETON
199
The Skull
201
Overview±of±Skull±Geography±•±Cranium±•±Facial±Bones±•±
Special±Characteristics±of±the±Orbits±and±Nasal±Cavity±•±Te±
Hyoid Bone
The Vertebral Column
218
General±Characteristics±•±General±Structure±of±Vertebrae±•±
Regional Vertebral Characteristics
The Thoracic Cage
224
Sternum±•±Ribs± ±
PART 2
THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON
227
The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
227
Clavicles±•±Scapulae± ±
The Upper Limb
228
Arm±•±Forearm±•±Hand± ±
The Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
234
Ilium±•±Ischium±•±Pubis±•±Pelvic±Structure±and±Childbearing± ±
The Lower Limb
238
Tigh±•±Leg±•±Foot± ±
Developmental Aspects of the Skeleton
244
8
Joints
249
Classification of Joints
249
Fibrous Joints
250
Sutures±•±Syndesmoses±•±Gomphoses± ±
Cartilaginous Joints
251
Synchondroses±•±Symphyses± ±
Synovial Joints
252
General±Structure±•±Bursae±and±²endon±Sheaths±•±Factors±
In³uencing±the±Stability±of±Synovial±Joints±•±Movements±
Allowed±by±Synovial±Joints±•±²ypes±of±Synovial±Joints±•±
Selected Synovial Joints
4
Tissue: The Living Fabric
116
Preparing Human Tissue for Microscopy
117
Epithelial Tissue
118
Special±Characteristics±of±Epithelium±•±Classi´cation±of±
Epithelia±•±Glandular±Epithelia± ±
Connective Tissue
127
Common±Characteristics±of±Connective±²issue±•±Structural±
Elements±of±Connective±²issue±•±²ypes±of±Connective±²issue± ±
Muscle Tissue
136
Nervous Tissue
140
Covering and Lining Membranes
140
Cutaneous±Membrane±•±Mucous±Membranes±•±Serous±
Membranes
Tissue Repair
142
Steps±of±²issue±Repair±•±Regenerative±Capacity±of±Diµerent±
Tissues
Developmental Aspects of Tissues
144
A C L O S E R L O O K
Cancer—The Intimate Enemy
145
Covering, Support, and
Movement of the Body
UNIT 2
5
The Integumentary System
150
The Skin
150
Epidermis±•±Dermis±•±Skin±Color± ±
Appendages of the Skin
157
Hairs±and±Hair±Follicles±•±Nails±•±Sweat±(Sudoriferous)±Glands±
•±Sebaceous±(Oil)±Glands±± ±
Functions of the Integumentary System
162
Protection±•±Body±²emperature±Regulation±•±Cutaneous±
Sensation±•±Metabolic±Functions±•±Blood±Reservoir±•±Excretion±±
Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin
164
Skin±Cancer±•±Burns± ±
Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary
System
167
From±Infancy±to±Adulthood±•±Aging±Skin± ±
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS
168
6
Bones and Skeletal Tissues
173
Skeletal Cartilages
173
Basic±Structure,±²ypes,±and±Locations±•±Growth±of±Cartilage± ±
Classification of Bones
174
Functions of Bones
176
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