8
Table 8.2
Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints
ILLUSTRATION
JOINT
ARTICULATING BONES
STRUCTURAL TYPE*
FUNCTIONAL TYPE; MOVEMENTS ALLOWED
 
Cranial and facial
bones
Temporal bone of
skull and mandible
Fibrous; suture
Synovial; modified
hinge
(contains
articular disc)
Synarthrotic; no movement
Diarthrotic; gliding and uniaxial rotation;
slight lateral movement, elevation,
depression, protraction, and retraction of
mandible
 
Occipital bone of
skull and atlas
Synovial; condylar
Diarthrotic; biaxial; flexion, extension, lateral
flexion, circumduction of head on neck
 
Atlas (C
1
) and
axis (C
2
)
Synovial; pivot
Diarthrotic; uniaxial; rotation of the head
 
Between adjacent
vertebral bodies
Cartilaginous;
symphysis
Amphiarthrotic; slight movement
 
Between articular
processes
Synovial; plane
Diarthrotic; gliding
 
Vertebrae (transverse
processes or bodies)
and ribs
Synovial; plane
Diarthrotic; gliding of ribs
 
Sternum and clavicle
Synovial; shallow
saddle (contains
articular disc)
Diarthrotic; multiaxial (allows clavicle to
move in all axes)
 
Sternum and rib 1
Cartilaginous;
synchondrosis
Synarthrotic; no movement
 
Sternum and ribs 2–7
Synovial; double plane
Diarthrotic; gliding
 
Acromion of scapula
and clavicle
Synovial; plane
(contains articular disc)
Diarthrotic; gliding and rotation of scapula
on clavicle
 
Scapula and humerus
Synovial; ball-and-
socket
Diarthrotic; multiaxial; flexion, extension,
abduction, adduction, circumduction,
rotation of humerus
 
Ulna (and radius)
with humerus
Synovial; hinge
Diarthrotic; uniaxial; flexion, extension of
forearm
 
Radius and ulna
Synovial; pivot
Diarthrotic; uniaxial; pivot (convex head of
radius rotates in radial notch of ulna)
 
Radius and ulna
Synovial; pivot
(contains articular disc)
Diarthrotic; uniaxial; rotation of radius
around long axis of forearm to allow
pronation and supination
 
Radius and proximal
carpals
Synovial; condylar
Diarthrotic; biaxial; flexion, extension,
abduction, adduction, circumduction of hand
 
Adjacent carpals
Synovial; plane
Diarthrotic; gliding
 
Carpal (trapezium)
and metacarpal 1
Synovial; saddle
Diarthrotic; biaxial; flexion, extension,
abduction, adduction, circumduction,
opposition of metacarpal I
 
Carpal(s) and
metacarpal(s)
Synovial; plane
Diarthrotic; gliding of metacarpals
 
Metacarpal and
proximal phalanx
Synovial; condylar
Diarthrotic; biaxial; flexion, extension,
abduction, adduction, circumduction of
fingers
 
Adjacent phalanges
Synovial; hinge
Diarthrotic; uniaxial; flexion, extension of
fingers
Skull
Temporo-
mandibular
Atlanto-occipital
Atlantoaxial
Intervertebral
Intervertebral
Costovertebral
Sternoclavicular
Sternocostal
(first)
Sternocostal
Acromio-
clavicular
Shoulder
(glenohumeral)
Elbow
Proximal
radioulnar
Distal
radioulnar
Wrist
Intercarpal
Carpometacarpal
of digit 1
(thumb)
Metacarpo-
phalangeal
(knuckle)
Interphalangeal
(finger)
Carpometacarpal
of digits 2–5
previous page 288 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 290 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off