248
UNIT 2
Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
have “fractured her hip,” which later proved to be true. What
bone was probably fractured and at what site? Why is a “fractured
hip” a common type of fracture in the elderly?
4.
Mrs. Shea came up with what she considered to be a clever idea
to bypass the long lines at Disney World. She had her husband
rent a wheelchair and he wheeled her around from one exhibit to
another for the better part of three days. As they sat on the plane,
waiting to take off for Chicago, she complained to him that she
had two sore spots on her buttocks. Why? What do you suppose
would happen (to her buttocks) if she was wheeled around for a
few more days?
and hand began to hurt whenever he flexed it, and he began to
awaken at night with pain and tingling on the thumb-half of his
hand. What condition did he probably have?
2.
Ralph had polio as a boy and was partially paralyzed in one lower
limb for over a year. Although no longer paralyzed, he now has
a severe lateral curvature of the lumbar spine. Explain what has
happened and identify his condition.
3.
Mary’s grandmother slipped on a scatter rug and fell heavily to
the floor. Her leF lower limb was laterally rotated and noticeably
shorter than the right, and when she attempted to get up, she
winced with pain. Mary surmised that her grandmother might
Related Clinical Terms
Chiropractic
(ki
0
ro-prak
9
tik) A system of treating disease by
manipulating the vertebral column based on the idea that most
diseases are due to pressure on nerves caused by faulty bone
alignment; a specialist in this field is a chiropractor.
Clubfoot
A relatively common congenital defect (one in 700 births)
in which the soles of the feet face medially and the toes point
inferiorly; may be genetically induced or reflect an abnormal
position of the foot during fetal development.
Laminectomy
Surgical removal of a vertebral lamina; most oFen
done to relieve the symptoms of a ruptured disc.
Orthopedist
(or
0
tho-pe
9
dist) or
orthopedic surgeon
A physician
who specializes in restoring lost skeletal system function or
repairing damage to bones and joints.
Pelvimetry
Measurement of the dimensions of the inlet and outlet of
the pelvis, usually to determine whether the pelvis is of adequate
size to allow normal delivery of a baby.
Spina bifida
(spi
9
nah bĭ
9
fĭ-dah; “cleF spine”) Congenital defect of
the vertebral column in which one or more of the vertebral
arches are incomplete; ranges in severity from inconsequential to
severe conditions that impair neural functioning and encourage
nervous system infections.
Spinal fusion
Surgical procedure involving insertion of bone chips
(or crushed bone) to immobilize and stabilize a specific region of
the vertebral column, particularly in cases of vertebral fracture
and herniated discs.
AT T H E C L I N I C
Kayla Tanner, a 45-year-old mother
of four, was a passenger on the bus
involved in an accident on Route 91.
When paramedics arrived on the
scene, they found Mrs. Tanner lying on her side in the aisle. Upon
examination, they found that her right thigh appeared shorter than
her left thigh. They also noticed that even slight hip movement
caused considerable pain. Suspecting a hip dislocation, they
stabilized and transported her.
In the emergency department, doctors discovered a decreased
ability to sense light touch in her right foot, and she was unable to
move her toes or ankle. Dislocation of her right hip was confirmed
by X ray. Mrs. Tanner was sedated to relax the muscles around
the hip, and then doctors placed her in the supine position and
performed a closed reduction (“popped” the femur back in place).
1.
Mrs. Tanner’s pelvic girdle contains a hemispherical socket at
the point where her femur attaches. Name this structure.
2.
Name the structure on the femur that forms the “ball” that fits
into the “socket” you named in question 1.
3.
There are three bones in the pelvic girdle that fuse together at a
point within the structure that you named in question 1. Name
those three bones.
4.
Mrs. Tanner suffered an injury to the hip joint, but if you were
asked to rest your hands on your hips, you would not actually
touch this joint. What structure in the pelvic girdle would your
hands be resting on?
5.
The sedation that Mrs. Tanner was given was to relax the large
muscles of the thigh and buttocks that attach to the proximal
end of the femur. Name the structures on the femur where
these muscles attach.
6.
Mrs. Tanner’s injury caused damage to the sciatic nerve that
passes across the hip and down into the thigh, lower leg, and
foot. Name the pelvic structure that this nerve passes through
as it travels into the upper thigh.
(Answers in Appendix H)
Case Study
Skeleton
7
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