1
The Human Body: An Orientation
1
An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
2
Topics±of±Anatomy±•±Topics±of±Physiology±•±Complementarity±
of Structure and Function
Levels of Structural Organization
3
Maintaining Life
4
Necessary±Life±Functions±•±Survival±Needs± ±
Homeostasis
8
Homeostatic±Control±•±Homeostatic±Imbalance± ±
The Language of Anatomy
11
Anatomical±Position±and±Directional±Terms±•±Regional±
Terms±•±Anatomical±Variability±•±Body±Planes±and±
Sections±•±Body±Cavities±and±Membranes± ±
A C L O S E R L O O K
Medical Imaging: Illuminating the Body
16
2
Chemistry Comes Alive
23
PART 1
BASIC CHEMISTRY
23
Definition of Concepts: Matter and Energy
23
Matter±•±Energy± ±
Composition of Matter: Atoms and Elements
25
Atomic±Structure±•±Identifying±Elements±•±Radioisotopes±±
How Matter Is Combined: Molecules and Mixtures
28
Molecules±and±Compounds±•±Mixtures±•±Distinguishing±
Mixtures from Compounds
Chemical Bonds
30
²e±Role±of±Electrons±in±Chemical±Bonding±•±Types±
of Chemical Bonds
Chemical Reactions
35
Chemical±Equations±•±Patterns±of±Chemical±Reactions±•±Energy±
Flow±in±Chemical±Reactions±•±Reversibility±of±Chemical±
Reactions±•±Factors±In³uencing±the±Rate±of±Chemical±
Reactions
PART 2
BIOCHEMISTRY
38
Inorganic Compounds
38
Water±•±Salts±•±Acids±and±Bases± ±
Organic Compounds
41
Carbohydrates±•±Lipids±•±Proteins±•±Nucleic±Acids±
(DNA±and±RNA)±•±Adenosine±Triphosphate±(ATP)± ±
3
Cells: The Living Units
61
The Cellular Basis of Life
62
The Plasma Membrane: Structure
63
²e±Fluid±Mosaic±Model±•±²e±Glycocalyx±•±Cell±Junctions± ±
The Plasma Membrane: Membrane Transport
67
Passive±Processes±•±Active±Processes
The Plasma Membrane: Generation of a Resting
Membrane Potential
79
Selective±Di´usion±Establishes±Membrane±Potential±•±Active±
Transport Maintains Electrochemical Gradients
The Plasma Membrane: Cell-Environment Interactions
80
Roles±of±Cell±Adhesion±Molecules±(CAMs)±•±Roles±of±Plasma±
Membrane±Receptors±•±Role±of±Voltage-Gated±Membrane±
Channel Proteins: Electrical Signaling
The Cytoplasm
81
Cytoplasmic±Organelles±•±Cellular±Extensions± ±
The Nucleus
91
²e±Nuclear±Envelope±•±Nucleoli±•±Chromatin± ±
Cell Growth and Reproduction
96
²e±Cell±Cycle±•±Protein±Synthesis±•±Other±Roles±of±DNA±•±
Degradation of Organelles and Cytosolic Proteins
Extracellular Materials
110
Developmental Aspects of Cells
110
Apoptosis±and±Modiµed±Rates±of±Cell±Division±•±Cell±Aging± ±
Contents
xxvii
Organization of the Body
UNIT 1
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