Chapter 7
The Skeleton
243
7
Check Your Understanding
34.
Besides supporting our weight, what is a major function of
the arches of the foot?
35.
What are the two largest tarsal bones in each foot, and
which one forms the heel of the foot?
For answers, see Appendix H.
Homeostatic Imbalance
7.8
Standing immobile for extended periods places excessive strain
on the tendons and ligaments of the feet (because the muscles
are inactive) and can result in fallen arches, or “flat feet,” par-
ticularly if a person is overweight. Running on hard surfaces can
also cause arches to fall unless the runner wears shoes that give
proper arch support.
Te bones of the thigh, leg, and foot are summarized in
±able 7.5.
Coxal
(2)
(hip)
Femur
(2)
Patella
(2)
Tibia
(2)
Fibula
(2)
7
Tarsals
(14)
talus
calcaneus
navicular
cuboid
lateral cuneiform
intermediate cuneiform
medial cuneiform
5
Metatarsals
(10)
14
Phalanges
(28)
distal
middle
proximal
Table 7.5
Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton, Part 2: Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
BODY REGION
BONES*
ILLUSTRATION
LOCATION
MARKINGS
Pelvic girdle
(Figures 7.30, 7.31)
 
 
Each coxal (hip) bone is
formed by the fusion of an
ilium, ischium, and pubis;
the coxal bones articulate
anteriorly at the pubic
symphysis and form sacroiliac
joints with the sacrum
posteriorly; girdle consisting
of both coxal bones and the
sacrum is basinlike
Iliac crest; anterior and
posterior iliac spines;
auricular surface; greater
and lesser sciatic notches;
obturator foramen; ischial
tuberosity and spine;
acetabulum; pubic arch;
pubic crest; pubic tubercle
Lower limb
Thigh (Figure 7.32)
 
 
Femur is the sole bone of
thigh; between hip joint and
knee; largest bone of the
body
Head; greater and lesser
trochanters; neck; lateral
and medial condyles
and epicondyles; gluteal
tuberosity; linea aspera
Kneecap
(Figure 7.32)
 
 
Patella is a sesamoid bone
formed within the tendon
of the quadriceps (anterior
thigh) muscles
 
Leg (Figure 7.33)
 
 
Tibia is the larger and more
medial bone of leg; between
knee and foot
Medial and lateral condyles;
tibial tuberosity; anterior
border; medial malleolus
 
 
 
Fibula is the lateral bone of
leg; sticklike
Head; lateral malleolus
Foot (Figure 7.34)
 
 
Tarsals are seven bones
forming the proximal part of
the foot; the talus articulates
with the leg bones at the
ankle joint; the calcaneus, the
largest tarsal, forms the heel
 
 
 
 
Metatarsals are five bones
numbered I–V
 
 
 
 
Phalanges form the toes;
three in digits 2–5, two in
digit 1 (the great toe)
 
* The number in parentheses ( ) following the bone name denotes the total number of such bones in the body.
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