twisted a quarter turn. Te ﬁbula does not bear weight, but sev-
eral muscles originate from it.
occurs at the distal end of the ﬁbula, the tibia, or
both. It is a common sports injury. (See Figure 7.33e.)
Check Your Understanding
What lower limb bone is the second largest bone in the body?
Where is the medial malleolus located?
Which of the following sites is not a site of muscle
attachment? Greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, gluteal
tuberosity, lateral condyle.
For answers, see Appendix H.
Te skeleton of the foot includes the bones of the
the bones of the
, and the
, or toe bones
. Te foot has two important functions: It sup-
ports our body weight, and it acts as a lever to propel the body
forward when we walk and run. A single bone could serve both
purposes, but it would adapt poorly to uneven ground. Segmen-
tation makes the foot pliable, avoiding this problem.
like two huge checkers lying side by side. Tese are separated
by an irregular projection, the
tibial condyles articulate with the corresponding condyles
of the femur. Te inferior region of the lateral tibial condyle
bears a facet that indicates the site of the
. Just inferior to the condyles, the tibia’s anterior surface
displays the rough
, to which the patellar liga-
Te tibial sha± is triangular in cross section. Neither the
nor its medial surface is covered
by muscles, so they can be felt just deep to the skin along their
entire length. Te anguish of a “bumped” shin is an experience
familiar to nearly everyone. Distally the tibia is ﬂat where it
articulates with the talus bone of the foot. Medial to that joint
surface is an inferior projection, the
o-lus; “little hammer”), which forms the medial bulge of
the ankle. Te
, on the lateral surface of the tibia,
participates in the
inferior tibioﬁbular joint
u-lah; “pin”) is a sticklike bone with slightly ex-
panded ends. It articulates proximally and distally with the lat-
eral aspects of the tibia. Its proximal end is its
; its distal
end is the
. Te lateral malleolus forms the
conspicuous lateral ankle bulge and articulates with the talus.
Te ﬁbular sha± is heavily ridged and appears to have been
(a) Superior view
(b) Medial view
(c) Lateral view
Bones of the right foot.
(For a related image, see
A Brief Atlas of the Human
, Figure 31a, c, and d.)