Chapter 7
The Skeleton
223
7
(b) Thoracic
Spinous process
Transverse
process
Superior
articular
process
and facet
Vertebral
foramen
Body
Transverse
costal facet
(for tubercle
of rib)
Superior
costal facet
(for head of rib)
Inferior
articular
process
Superior articular
process and facet
Spinous
process
Vertebral
foramen
Transverse
process
Transverse
foramen
Body
(a) Cervical
(c) Lumbar
Spinous process
Transverse
process
Superior
articular
process
and facet
Vertebral
foramen
Body
(a) Cervical
Spinous
process
Body
Inferior
articular
process
and facet
Transverse
process
Superior
articular
process
(b) Thoracic
Body
Superior articular
process and facet
Transverse
costal facet
(for tubercle
of rib)
Superior costal
facet (for head
of rib)
Inferior
notch
Inferior costal
facet (for head
of rib)
Spinous
process
Transverse
process
(c) Lumbar
Superior
articular
process
Inferior articular
process and facet
Inferior notch
Transverse
process
Body
Spinous
process
Table 7.2
Regional Characteristics of Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Vertebrae
CHARACTERISTIC
CERVICAL (3–7)
THORACIC
LUMBAR
Body
Small, wide side to side
Larger than cervical; heart
shaped; bears two costal facets
Massive; kidney shaped
Spinous process
Short; bifid; projects directly
posterior
Long; sharp; projects inferiorly
Short; blunt; rectangular; projects
directly posteriorly
Vertebral foramen
Triangular
Circular
Triangular
Transverse processes
Contain foramina
Bear facets for ribs (except T
11
and T
12
)
Thin and tapered
Superior and inferior articular
processes
Superior facets directed
superoposteriorly
Superior facets directed
posteriorly
Superior facets directed
posteromedially (or medially)
 
Inferior facets directed
inferoanteriorly
Inferior facets directed anteriorly
Inferior facets directed
anterolaterally (or laterally)
Movements allowed
Flexion and extension; lateral
flexion; rotation; the spine
region with the greatest range of
movement
Rotation; lateral flexion possible
but restricted by ribs; flexion and
extension limited
Flexion and extension; some
lateral flexion; rotation
prevented
Superior View
 
 
 
 
Right Lateral View
 
 
 
 
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