Chapter 7
The Skeleton
217
7
BONE COLOR CODE*
COMMENTS
IMPORTANT MARKINGS
Ethmoid
(1)
(Figures 7.4a, 7.5, 7.7, 7.10, and 7.14)
Helps to form the anterior cranial fossa; forms
part of the nasal septum and the lateral walls
and roof of the nasal cavity; contributes to the
medial wall of the orbit
Crista galli:
attachment point for the falx
cerebri, a dural membrane fold
Cribriform plates:
allow passage of filaments of
the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I)
 
 
Superior
and
middle nasal conchae:
form
part of lateral walls of nasal cavity; increase
turbulence of air flow
Auditory ossicles
(malleus, incus, and
stapes) (2 each)
Found in middle ear cavity; involved in sound
transmission; see Figure 15.24b, p. 571
 
Facial Bones
Mandible
(1)
(Figures 7.4a, 7.5, and 7.11a)
The lower jaw
Coronoid processes:
insertion points for the
temporalis muscles
Condylar processes:
articulate with the
temporal bones in the temporomandibular
joints of the jaw
 
 
Mandibular symphysis:
medial fusion point of
the mandibular bones
 
 
Dental alveoli:
sockets for the teeth
 
 
Mandibular foramina:
permit the inferior
alveolar nerves to pass
 
 
Mental foramina:
allow blood vessels and
nerves to pass to the chin and lower lip
Maxilla
(2)
(Figures 7.4a, 7.5, 7.6, and 7.11b)
Keystone bones of the face; form the upper
jaw and parts of the hard palate, orbits, and
nasal cavity walls
Dental alveoli:
sockets for teeth
Zygomatic processes:
help form the zygomatic
arches
 
 
Palatine processes:
form the anterior hard
palate; meet medially in intermaxillary suture
 
 
Frontal process:
forms part of lateral aspect of
bridge of nose
 
 
Incisive fossa:
permits blood vessels and nerves
to pass through anterior hard palate (fused
palatine processes)
 
 
Inferior orbital fissure:
permits maxillary
branch of cranial nerve V, the zygomatic nerve,
and blood vessels to pass
 
 
Infraorbital foramen:
allows passage of
infraorbital nerve to skin of face
Zygomatic
(2)
(Figures 7.4a, 7.5a, and 7.6a)
Form the cheeks and part of the orbits
 
Nasal
(2)
(Figures 7.4a and 7.5)
Form the bridge of the nose
 
Lacrimal
(2)
(Figures 7.4a and 7.5a)
Form part of the medial orbit walls
Lacrimal fossa:
houses the lacrimal sac, which
helps to drain tears into the nasal cavity
Palatine
(2)
(Figures 7.5c, 7.6a, and 7.13)
Form posterior part of the hard palate and a
small part of nasal cavity and orbit walls
Median palatine suture:
medial fusion point
of the horizontal plates of the palatine bones,
which form the posterior part of the hard
palate
Vomer
(1)
(Figures 7.4a and 7.13b)
Inferior part of the nasal septum
 
Inferior nasal concha
(2)
(Figures 7.4a and 7.13a)
Form part of the lateral walls of the nasal
cavity
 
*The color code beside each bone name corresponds to the bone’s color in Figures 7.4 to 7.13. The number in parentheses ( ) following the bone name
indicates the total number of such bones in the body.
Table 7.1
(continued)
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