Chapter 7
The Skeleton
211
7
each ramus are two processes separated by the
mandibular
notch
. Te anterior
coronoid process
(kor
9
o-noid; “crown-
shaped”) is an insertion point for the large temporalis mus-
cle that elevates the lower jaw during chewing. Te posterior
condylar process
articulates with the mandibular fossa of the
temporal bone, forming the
temporomandibular joint
on the
same side.
Te mandibular
body
anchors the lower teeth. Its superior
border, called the
alveolar process
(al-ve
9
o-lar), contains the
sockets (
dental alveoli
) in which the teeth are embedded. In the
midline of the mandibular body is a slight ridge, the
mandibu-
lar symphysis
(sim
9
fih-sis), indicating where the two mandibu-
lar bones fused during infancy (Figure 7.4a).
Large
mandibular foramina
, one on the medial surface of
each ramus, permit the nerves responsible for tooth sensation
Facial Bones
Te facial skeleton is made up of 14 bones (see Figures 7.4a and
7.5a), of which only the mandible and the vomer are unpaired.
Te maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, and infe-
rior nasal conchae are paired bones. As a rule, the facial skeleton
of men is more elongated than that of women. Women’s faces
tend to be rounder and less angular.
Mandible
Te U-shaped
mandible
(man
9
dĭ-bl), or lower jawbone (Fig-
ures 7.4a and 7.5, and
Figure 7.11a
), is the largest, strongest
bone of the face. It has a body, which forms the chin, and two
upright
rami
(
rami
5
branches). Each ramus meets the body
posteriorly at a
mandibular angle
. At the superior margin of
Coronoid
process
Mandibular foramen
Mental
foramen
Mandibular
angle
Ramus
of
mandible
Condylar
process
Mandibular notch
Mandibular fossa
of temporal bone
Body of mandible
Alveolar
process
(a) Mandible, right lateral view
Temporomandibular
joint
Frontal process
Articulates with
frontal bone
Anterior nasal
spine
Infraorbital
foramen
Alveolar
process
(b) Maxilla, right lateral view
(c) Maxilla, photo of right lateral view
Orbital surface
Zygomatic
process
(cut)
Figure 7.11
Detailed anatomy of the mandible and the maxilla.
(For related images, see
A Brief Atlas of the Human Body,
Figures 11 and 12.)
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