198
UNIT 2
Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
Remember Mrs. DeStephano? When
we last heard about her she was being
admitted for further studies. Relative
to her skeletal system, the following
notes have been added to her chart.
Fracture of superior right tibia (shinbone of leg); skin lacerated;
area cleaned and protruding bone fragments subjected to
internal (open) reduction and casted
Nutrient artery of tibia damaged
Medial meniscus (fibrocartilage disc) of right knee joint crushed;
knee joint inflamed and painful
Relative to these notes:
1.
What type of fracture does Mrs. DeStephano have?
2.
What problems can be predicted with such fractures and how
are they treated?
3.
What is internal reduction? Why was a cast applied?
4.
Given an uncomplicated recovery, approximately how long
should it take before Mrs. DeStephano has a good solid bony
callus?
5.
What complications might be predicted by the fact that the
nutrient artery is damaged?
6.
What new techniques might be used to enhance fracture repair
if healing is delayed or impaired?
7.
How likely is it that Mrs. DeStephano’s knee cartilage will
regenerate? Why?
(Answers in Appendix H)
Case Study
Skeletal System
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Also called brittle bone disease, a disorder
in which the bone matrix contains inadequate collagen, putting
it at risk for shattering.
Osteomyelitis
(os
0
te-o-mi
0
-li
9
tis) Inflammation of bone and bone
marrow caused by pus-forming bacteria that enter the body
via a wound (e.g., compound bone fracture), or spread from
an infection near the bone. Commonly affects the long bones,
causing acute pain and fever. May result in joint stiffness, bone
destruction, and shortening of a limb. Treatment involves
antibiotics, draining any abscesses (local collections of pus), and
removing dead bone fragments (which prevent healing).
Osteosarcoma
(os
0
te-o-sar-ko
9
mah) A form of bone cancer typically
arising in a long bone of a limb and most oFen in those 10–25
years of age. Grows aggressively, painfully eroding the bone;
tends to metastasize to the lungs and cause secondary lung
tumors. Usual treatment is amputation of the affected bone or
limb, followed by chemotherapy and surgical removal of any
metastases. Survival rate is about 50% if detected early.
Pathologic fracture
±racture in a diseased bone involving slight
(coughing or a quick turn) or no physical trauma. ±or example,
a hip bone weakened by osteoporosis may break and cause the
person to fall, rather than breaking because of the fall.
Traction
(“pulling”) Placing sustained tension on a body region to
keep the parts of a fractured bone in proper alignment. Also
prevents spasms of skeletal muscles, which would separate
the fractured bone ends or crush the spinal cord in the case of
vertebral column fractures.
Related Clinical Terms
(continued)
6
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