Skeletal System
Chapters 6–8
Skin protects bones; skin synthesizes a vitamin D precursor
needed for normal calcium absorption and deposit of bone
(calcium) salts, which make bones hard
Skeletal system provides support for skin
Muscular System
Chapters 9–10
Skin protects muscles
Active muscles generate large amounts of heat, which increases
blood flow to the skin and may activate sweat glands in skin
Nervous System
Chapters 11–15
Skin protects nervous system organs; cutaneous sensory
receptors for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature located in
skin (see Figure 5.1)
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S Y S T E M C O N N E C T I O N S
Homeostatic Interrelationships Between
the
Integumentary System
and Other Body Systems
Nervous system regulates diameter of blood vessels in skin;
activates sweat glands, contributing to thermoregulation;
interprets cutaneous sensation; activates arrector pili muscles
Endocrine System
Chapter 16
Skin protects endocrine organs; converts some hormones to
their active forms; synthesizes a vitamin D precursor
Androgens produced by the endocrine system activate
sebaceous glands and are involved in regulating hair growth
Cardiovascular System
Chapters 17–19
Skin protects cardiovascular organs; prevents fluid loss from
body; serves as blood reservoir
Cardiovascular system transports oxygen and nutrients to skin
and removes wastes from skin; provides substances needed by
skin glands to make their secretions
Lymphatic System/Immunity
Chapters 20–21
Skin protects lymphatic organs; prevents pathogen invasion;
dendritic cells and macrophages help activate the immune
system
Lymphatic system prevents edema by picking up excessive
leaked fluid; immune system protects skin cells
Respiratory System
Chapter 22
Skin protects respiratory organs; hairs in nose help filter out
dust from inhaled air
Respiratory system furnishes oxygen to skin cells and removes
carbon dioxide via gas exchange with blood
Digestive System
Chapter 23
Skin protects digestive organs; provides vitamin D needed
for calcium absorption; performs some of the same chemical
conversions as liver cells
Digestive system provides needed nutrients to the skin
Urinary System
Chapters 25–26
Skin protects urinary organs; excretes salts and some
nitrogenous wastes in sweat
Urinary system activates vitamin D precursor made by
keratinocytes; disposes of nitrogenous wastes of skin
metabolism
Reproductive System
Chapter 27
Skin protects reproductive organs; cutaneous receptors respond
to erotic stimuli; highly modified sweat glands (mammary
glands) produce milk
During pregnancy, skin stretches to accommodate growing
fetus; changes in skin pigmentation may occur
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