Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues
Updated information on bone resorption and remodeling.
New bone-related information on serotonin, glucose intol-
erance, and diabetes mellitus.
Updated information on osteogenic cells and microscopic
anatomy of bone cells.
New information on osteoporosis in prostate cancer patients
who receive androgen-suppressing therapy.
New information on osteocalcin, a hormone which helps
regulate bone formation and also protects against obesity,
glucose intolerance, and diabetes mellitus.
New information on the monoclonal antibody drug deno-
sumab as a treatment for osteoporosis.
Chapter 7 The Skeleton
New Clinical Case Study.
New photos of the skull, temporal bone, sphenoid and eth-
moid bones, mandible, and orbits (Figures 7.5–7.12).
New photos of defects in spinal curvature (Figure 7.17).
New photos of proximal tibia (Figure 7.33).
Chapter 8 Joints
New Clinical Case Study.
New Focus Figure 8.7: Types of Synovial Joints.
Added information on meniscal transplant surgery.
Updated information on treatment of sprains.
Updated statistics on arthritis; updated treatment of rheu-
matoid arthritis.
Updated description of sinovitis.
Updated statistics on joint replacements in the U.S.
Updated research aimed at future treatments of joint problems.
Chapter 9 Muscles and Muscle Tissue
New discussion of EPOC (excess postexercise oxygen con-
New photomicrograph of skeletal muscle (Figure 9.1).
New Figure 9.9 (skeletal muscle action potentials).
Added information of myosin head orientation in smooth
Updated information on treatments for Duchenne muscular
Streamlined discussion of muscle fatigue.
Added skeletal muscle fibers to Figure 9.17 for better teach-
ing effectiveness.
Chapter 10 The Muscular System
New Focus Figure 10.1: Muscle Action.
New Clinical Case Study.
New photo of hip and thigh muscles (Figure 10.21).
Chapter 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous
Update on multiple sclerosis risk factors and treatment.
New information on addiction treatment and prescription
drug abuse (
A Closer Look
New Clinical Case Study.
Updated discussion on neuronal transport.
New information on gasotransmitters.
Update on shingles and vaccination available for its
Discuss direct and indirect neurotransmitter receptor mech-
anisms in two figures (Figures 11.20 and 11.21). Added re-
lay-runner motif to G-protein linked receptor figure (Figure
11.21) to tie it to previous G-protein figure in Chapter 3.
Chapter 12 The Central Nervous System
New Clinical Case Study.
Updated information on premotor cortex and the role of the
basal nuclei.
New information on Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s
Update on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Updated information on genetic causes of autism.
New photos of brain sections (Figures 12.9, 12.10, and
New photo of spinal cord (Figure 12.26).
Chapter 13 The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity
New information on vanilloid receptors, pain tolerance, and
Bell’s palsy.
New SEM of nerve cross-section (Figure 13.4).
New photos of brachial and sacral plexuses (Figures 13.10
and 13.12).
New Clinical Case Study.
Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System
Updated information on aging and blood pressure recep-
Streamlined discussion of sympathetic trunks and pathways.
More explicit statement about the “background” firing rate
of neurons along sympathetic and parasympathetic axons in
Chapter 15 The Special Senses
New Clinical Case Study.
New information on link between vitamin C and cataract
New photos of retina (Figure 15.7), cataract (Figure 15.9),
and refraction (Figure 15.11).
New summary Table 15.1—differences between rods and
Updated discussion of olfactory processing.
New summary Table 15.2—structures of internal ear and
their functions.
Chapter 16 The Endocrine System
New research on ghrelin and growth hormone release.
New photo showing effects of growth hormone excess and
deficiency (Figure 16.7).
Updated information on type 1 diabetes.
New Focus Figure 16.5: Hypothalamus and Pituitary Inter-
New photomicrographs of thyroid (Figure 16.8), parathy-
roid (Figure 16.12), adrenal gland (Figure 16.14), and pan-
creas (Figure 16.18).
New flowchart of parathyroid hormone effects (Figure 16.13).
Chapter 17 Blood
New Clinical Case Study.
New SEMs of normal and sickled RBCs (Figure 17.8).
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