148
UNIT 1
Organization of the Body
4
different directions; forms the dermis of the skin and
organ capsules.
9.
Cartilage exists as
Hyaline: firm ground substance containing collagen fibers;
resists compression well; found in fetal skeleton, at articulating
surfaces of bones, and trachea; most abundant type.
Elastic cartilage: elastic fibers predominate; provides flexible
support of the external ear and epiglottis.
Fibrocartilage: parallel collagen fibers; provides support with
compressibility; forms intervertebral discs and knee cartilages.
10.
Bone (osseous tissue) consists of a hard, collagen-containing
matrix embedded with calcium salts; forms the bony skeleton.
11.
Blood consists of blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma).
Muscle Tissue
(pp. 136–139)
1.
Muscle tissue consists of elongated cells specialized to contract
and cause movement.
2.
Based on structure and function, the muscle tissues are
Skeletal muscle: attached to and moves the bony skeleton; cells
are cylindrical and striated.
Cardiac muscle: forms the walls of the heart; pumps blood;
cells are branched and striated.
Smooth muscle: in the walls of hollow organs; propels
substances through the organs; cells are spindle shaped and
lack striations.
Nervous Tissue
(p. 140)
1.
Nervous tissue forms organs of the nervous system. It is
composed of neurons and supporting cells.
2.
Neurons are branching cells that receive and transmit electrical
impulses. Tey are involved in body regulation. Supporting cells
support and protect neurons.
Nervous System I; Topic: Anatomy Review, pp. 1, 3.
Covering and Lining Membranes
(pp. 140–142)
1.
Membranes are simple organs, consisting of an epithelium bound
to an underlying connective tissue layer. Tey include mucosae,
serosae, and the cutaneous membrane.
Tissue Repair
(pp. 142–144)
1.
Inflammation is the body’s response to injury. ±issue repair
begins during the inflammatory process. It may lead to
regeneration, fibrosis, or both.
2.
±issue repair begins with organization, during which the blood
clot is replaced by granulation tissue. If the wound is small and
the damaged tissue is actively mitotic, the tissue will regenerate
and cover the fibrous tissue. When a wound is extensive or the
damaged tissue amitotic, it is repaired only by fibrous connective
(scar) tissue.
Developmental Aspects of Tissues
(pp. 144–146)
1.
Epithelium arises from all three primary germ layers (ectoderm,
mesoderm, endoderm); muscle and connective tissue from
mesoderm; and nervous tissue from ectoderm.
2.
Te decrease in mass and viability seen in most tissues during old
age o²en reflects circulatory deficits or poor nutrition.
Multiple Choice/Matching
(Some questions have more than one correct answer. Select the best
answer or answers from the choices given.)
1.
Use the key to classify each of the following described tissue types
into one of the four major tissue categories.
Key:
(a)
connective tissue
(c)
muscle
(b)
epithelium
(d)
nervous tissue
____
(1)
±issue type composed largely of nonliving extracellular
matrix; important in protection and support
____
(2)
Te tissue immediately responsible for body
movement
____
(3)
Te tissue that enables us to be aware of the external
environment and to react to it
____
(4)
Te tissue that lines body cavities and covers surfaces
2.
An epithelium that has several layers, with an apical layer of
flattened cells, is called (choose all that apply):
(a)
ciliated,
(b)
columnar,
(c)
stratified,
(d)
simple,
(e)
squamous.
3.
Match the epithelial types named in column B with the
appropriate description(s) in column A.
Column A
4.
Te gland type that secretes products such as milk, saliva, bile, or
sweat through a duct is
(a)
an endocrine gland,
(b)
an exocrine
gland.
5.
Te membrane which lines body cavities that open to the exterior
is a(n)
(a)
endothelium,
(b)
cutaneous membrane,
(c)
mucous
membrane,
(d)
serous membrane.
6.
Scar tissue is a variety of
(a)
epithelium,
(b)
connective tissue,
(c)
muscle tissue,
(d)
nervous tissue,
(e)
all of these.
Short Answer Essay Questions
7.
Define tissue.
8.
Name four important functions of epithelial tissue and provide at
least one example of a tissue that exemplifies each function.
9.
Describe the criteria used to classify covering and lining epithelia.
10.
Explain the functional classification of multicellular exocrine
glands and supply an example for each class.
11.
Provide examples from the body that illustrate four of the major
functions of connective tissue.
12.
Name the primary cell type in connective tissue proper; in
cartilage; in bone.
13.
Name the two major components of matrix and, if applicable,
subclasses of each component.
14.
Matrix is extracellular. How does the matrix get to its
characteristic position?
Review Questions
____
(1)
Lines most of the
digestive tract
____
(2)
Lines the esophagus
____
(3)
Lines much of the
respiratory tract
____
(4)
Forms the walls of the
air sacs of the lungs
____
(5)
Found in urinary
tract organs
____
(6)
Endothelium and
mesothelium
Column B
(a)
pseudostratified
ciliated columnar
(b)
simple columnar
(c)
simple cuboidal
(d)
simple squamous
(e)
stratified
columnar
(f)
stratified
squamous
(g)
transitional
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