Organization of the Body
diﬀerent directions; forms the dermis of the skin and
Cartilage exists as
Hyaline: ﬁrm ground substance containing collagen ﬁbers;
resists compression well; found in fetal skeleton, at articulating
surfaces of bones, and trachea; most abundant type.
Elastic cartilage: elastic ﬁbers predominate; provides ﬂexible
support of the external ear and epiglottis.
Fibrocartilage: parallel collagen ﬁbers; provides support with
compressibility; forms intervertebral discs and knee cartilages.
Bone (osseous tissue) consists of a hard, collagen-containing
matrix embedded with calcium salts; forms the bony skeleton.
Blood consists of blood cells in a ﬂuid matrix (plasma).
Muscle tissue consists of elongated cells specialized to contract
and cause movement.
Based on structure and function, the muscle tissues are
Skeletal muscle: attached to and moves the bony skeleton; cells
are cylindrical and striated.
Cardiac muscle: forms the walls of the heart; pumps blood;
cells are branched and striated.
Smooth muscle: in the walls of hollow organs; propels
substances through the organs; cells are spindle shaped and
Nervous tissue forms organs of the nervous system. It is
composed of neurons and supporting cells.
Neurons are branching cells that receive and transmit electrical
impulses. Tey are involved in body regulation. Supporting cells
support and protect neurons.
Nervous System I; Topic: Anatomy Review, pp. 1, 3.
Covering and Lining Membranes
Membranes are simple organs, consisting of an epithelium bound
to an underlying connective tissue layer. Tey include mucosae,
serosae, and the cutaneous membrane.
Inﬂammation is the body’s response to injury. ±issue repair
begins during the inﬂammatory process. It may lead to
regeneration, ﬁbrosis, or both.
±issue repair begins with organization, during which the blood
clot is replaced by granulation tissue. If the wound is small and
the damaged tissue is actively mitotic, the tissue will regenerate
and cover the ﬁbrous tissue. When a wound is extensive or the
damaged tissue amitotic, it is repaired only by ﬁbrous connective
Developmental Aspects of Tissues
Epithelium arises from all three primary germ layers (ectoderm,
mesoderm, endoderm); muscle and connective tissue from
mesoderm; and nervous tissue from ectoderm.
Te decrease in mass and viability seen in most tissues during old
age o²en reﬂects circulatory deﬁcits or poor nutrition.
(Some questions have more than one correct answer. Select the best
answer or answers from the choices given.)
Use the key to classify each of the following described tissue types
into one of the four major tissue categories.
±issue type composed largely of nonliving extracellular
matrix; important in protection and support
Te tissue immediately responsible for body
Te tissue that enables us to be aware of the external
environment and to react to it
Te tissue that lines body cavities and covers surfaces
An epithelium that has several layers, with an apical layer of
ﬂattened cells, is called (choose all that apply):
Match the epithelial types named in column B with the
appropriate description(s) in column A.
Te gland type that secretes products such as milk, saliva, bile, or
sweat through a duct is
an endocrine gland,
Te membrane which lines body cavities that open to the exterior
Scar tissue is a variety of
all of these.
Short Answer Essay Questions
Name four important functions of epithelial tissue and provide at
least one example of a tissue that exempliﬁes each function.
Describe the criteria used to classify covering and lining epithelia.
Explain the functional classiﬁcation of multicellular exocrine
glands and supply an example for each class.
Provide examples from the body that illustrate four of the major
functions of connective tissue.
Name the primary cell type in connective tissue proper; in
cartilage; in bone.
Name the two major components of matrix and, if applicable,
subclasses of each component.
Matrix is extracellular. How does the matrix get to its
Lines most of the
Lines the esophagus
Lines much of the
Forms the walls of the
air sacs of the lungs
Found in urinary