4
Tissue: The Living Fabric
Preparing Human Tissue for Microscopy
(pp. 117–118)
Epithelial Tissue
(pp. 118–126)
Special Characteristics of Epithelium
(pp. 118–119)
Classification of Epithelia (pp. 119–124)
Glandular Epithelia (pp. 124–126)
Connective Tissue
(pp. 127–136)
Common Characteristics of Connective
Tissue (p. 127)
Structural Elements of Connective Tissue
(pp. 127–129)
Types of Connective Tissue (pp. 129–136)
Muscle Tissue
(pp. 136–139)
Nervous Tissue
(p. 140)
Covering and Lining Membranes
(pp. 140–142)
Cutaneous Membrane (p. 140)
Mucous Membranes (pp. 141–142)
Serous Membranes (p. 142)
Tissue Repair
(pp. 142–144)
Steps of Tissue Repair (pp. 142–143)
Regenerative Capacity of Different Tissues
(p. 144)
Developmental Aspects of Tissues
(pp. 144–146)
116
U
nicellular (one-cell) organisms are rugged individualists.
Each cell
alone obtains and digests its food, ejects its wastes, and carries out all the other
activities necessary to keep itself alive and “buzzin’ around on all cylinders.” But
in the multicellular human body, cells do not operate independently. Instead, they form
tight cell communities that live and work together.
Individual body cells are specialized, with each type performing specific func-
tions that help maintain homeostasis and benefit the body as a whole. Cell spe-
cialization is obvious: Muscle cells look and act differently from skin cells, which
in turn are easy to distinguish from brain cells. Cell specialization allows the body
to function in sophisticated ways, but division of labor has certain hazards. When
a particular group of cells is indispensable, its injury or loss can disable or even
destroy the body.
Tissues
(
tissu
5
woven) are groups of cells that are similar in structure and per-
form a common or related function. Four primary tissue types interweave to form
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