nephro-
kidney
nephritis, inflammation of the kidney
neuro-
nerve
neurophysiology, the physiology of the nervous system
noci-
harmful
nociceptors, receptors for pain
nom-
name
innominate artery; innominate bone
noto-
back
notochord, the embryonic structure that precedes the vertebral
column
nucle-
pit, kernel, little nut
nucleus
nutri-
feed, nourish
nutrition
ob-
before, against
obstruction, impeding or blocking up
oculo-
eye
monocular, pertaining to one eye
odonto-
teeth
orthodontist, one who specializes in proper positioning of
the teeth in relation to each other
olfact-
smell
olfactory nerves
oligo-
few
oligodendrocytes, neuroglial cells with few branches
onco-
a mass
oncology, study of cancer
oo-
egg
oocyte, precursor of female gamete
ophthalmo-
eye
ophthalmology, the study of the eyes and related disease
orb-
circular
orbicularis oculi, muscle that encircles the eye
orchi-
testis
cryptorchidism, failure of the testes to descend into the
scrotum
org-
living
organism
ortho-
straight, direct
orthopedic, correction of deformities of the muscu-
loskeletal system
osm-
smell
anosmia, loss of sense of smell
osmo-
pushing
osmosis
osteo-
bone
osteodermia, bony formations in the skin
oto-
ear
otoscope, a device for examining the ear
ov-, ovi-
egg
ovum; oviduct
oxy-
oxygen
oxygenation, the saturation of a substance with oxygen
pan-
all, universal
panacea, a cure-all
papill-
nipple
dermal papillae, projections of the dermis into the epidermal
area
para-
beside, near
paranuclear, beside the nucleus
pect-, pectus
breast
pectoralis major, a large chest muscle
pelv-
a basin
pelvic girdle, which cradles the pelvic organs
peni-
a tail
penis; penile arteriole
penna-
feather
unipennate, bipennate muscles, whose fascicles have a
feathered appearance
pent-
five
pentose, a 5-carbon sugar
pep-, peps-, pept-
digest
pepsin, a digestive enzyme of the stomach; peptic
ulcer
per-, permea-
through
permeate; permeable
peri-
around
perianal, situated around the anus
phago-
eat
phagocyte, a cell that engulfs and digests particles or cells
pheno-
show, appear
phenotype, the physical appearance of an individual
phleb-
vein
phlebitis, inflammation of the veins
pia
tender
pia mater, delicate inner membrane around the brain and spinal
cord
pili
hair
arrector pili muscles of the skin, which make the hairs stand erect
pin-, pino-
drink
pinocytosis, the engulfing of small particles by a cell
platy-
flat, broad
platysma, broad, flat muscle of the neck
pleur-
side, rib
pleural serosa, the membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
and covers the lungs
plex-, plexus
net, network
brachial plexus, the network of nerves that sup-
plies the arm
pneumo-
air, wind
pneumothorax, air in the thoracic cavity
pod-
foot
podiatry, the treatment of foot disorders
poly-
multiple
polymorphism, multiple forms
post-
aFer, behind
posterior, places behind (a specific) part
pre-, pro-
before, ahead of
prenatal, before birth
procto-
rectum, anus
proctoscope, an instrument for examining the rectum
pron-
bent forward
prone, pronate
labi-, labri-
lip
labial frenulum, the membrane which joins the lip to the
gum
lact-
milk
lactose, milk sugar
lacun-
space, cavity, lake
lacunae, the spaces occupied by cells of cartilage
and bone tissue
lamell-
small plate
concentric lamellae, rings of bone matrix in compact
bone
lamina
layer, sheet
basal lamina, part of the epithelial basement membrane
lat-
wide
latissimus dorsi, a broad muscle of the back
laten-
hidden
latent period of a muscle twitch
later-
side
lateral (directional term)
leuko-
white
leukocyte, white blood cell
leva-
raise, elevate
levator labii superioris, muscle that elevates upper lip
lingua-
tongue
lingual tonsil, adjacent to the tongue
lip-, lipo-
fat, lipid
lipophage, a cell that has taken up fat in its cytoplasm
lith-
stone
cholelithiasis, gallstones
luci-
clear
stratum lucidum, clear layer of the epidermis
lumen
light
lumen, center of a hollow structure
lut-
yellow
corpus luteum, a yellow, hormone-secreting structure in the
ovary
lymph
water
lymphatic circulation, return of clear fluid to the bloodstream
macro-
large
macromolecule, large molecule
macula
spot
macula lutea, yellow spot on the retina
magn-
large
foramen magnum, largest opening of the skull
mal-
bad, abnormal
malfunction, abnormal functioning of an organ
mamm-
breast
mammary gland, breast
mast-
breast
mastectomy, removal of a mammary gland
mater
mother
dura mater, pia mater, membranes that envelop the brain
meat-
passage
external acoustic meatus, the ear canal
medi-
middle
medial (directional term)
medull-
marrow
medulla, the middle portion of the kidney, adrenal gland,
and lymph node
mega-
large
megakaryocyte, large precursor cell of platelets
meio-
less
meiosis, nuclear division that halves the chromosome number
melan-
black
melanocytes, which secrete the black pigment melanin
men-, menstru-
month
menses, the cyclic menstrual flow
meningo-
membrane
meningitis, inflammation of the membranes of the
brain
mer-, mero-,
a part
merocrine glands, the secretions of which do not in-
clude the cell
meso-
middle
mesoderm, middle germ layer
meta-
beyond, between, transition
metatarsus, the part of the foot between
the tarsus and the phalanges
metro-
uterus
endometrium, the lining of the uterus
micro-
small
microscope, an instrument used to make small objects ap-
pear larger
mictur-
urinate
micturition, the act of voiding the bladder
mito-
thread, filament
mitochondria, small, filament-like structures lo-
cated in cells
mnem-
memory
amnesia
mono-
single
monospasm, spasm of a single limb
morpho-
form
morphology, the study of form and structure or organisms
multi-
many
multinuclear, having several nuclei
mur-
wall
intramural ganglion, a nerve junction within an organ
muta-
change
mutation, change in the base sequence of DNA
myelo-
spinal cord, marrow
myeloblasts, cells of the bone marrow
myo-
muscle
myocardium, heart muscle
nano-
dwarf
nanometer, one-billionth of a meter
narco-
numbness
narcotic, a drug producing stupor or numbed sensations
natri-
sodium
atrial natriuretic peptide, a sodium-regulating hormone
necro-
death
necrosis, tissue death
neo-
new
neoplasm, an abnormal growth
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