Index
I-59
Vertebral canal,
220
Vertebral (spinal) cavity,
14
, 18
f
Vertebral column (spine/spinal
column), 200
f
,
218
–224, 218
f
,
219
f
, 220
f
, 221
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
,
224
f
developmental aspects of, 244–
245, 245
f
muscles of, 336–338
t
, 339
f
osteoporotic fractures of, 192, 245
Vertebral foramen,
220
, 220
f
, 223
t
Vertebral (floating) ribs, 225
f
,
226
Vertebral spine (spinous process),
219
f
,
220
, 220
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
of vertebra prominens, 221
Vertebral vein, 737
f
, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Vertebra prominens,
221
, 222
f
Vertebrochondral (false) ribs, 225
f
,
226
Vertebrosternal (true) ribs, 225
f
,
226
,
226
f
Vertex presentation, 1086, 1086
f
Vertical (perpendicular) plate, 203
f
,
205
f
,
210
, 210
f
,
212
, 214
f
Very low density lipoproteins
(VLDLs), 932,
936
, 936
f
Vesical arteries, superior, 1087
Vesicle(s), 73
brain, 1077
primary,
429
, 429
f
secondary,
429
, 429
f
clathrin-coated,
75
, 76
f
, 78
t
in exocytosis, 77, 77
f
, 85, 86
f
lens,
585
optic,
585
otic,
585
secretory, 77, 77
f
, 85, 85
f
, 86
f
, 87
f
synaptic,
286
, 287
f
,
407
, 409
f
, 511
transport, 73, 76
f
, 78
t
, 85
f
, 87
f
Vesicle SNAREs, in exocytosis, 77
f
,
78
Vesicouterine pouch, 1035
f
, 1038
Vesicular (antral/tertiary) follicles,
1036
, 1036
f
, 1044
f
, 1045–
1047, 1046
f
,
1047
, 1050
f
Vesicular trafficking, 73, 73–77, 78
t
Vesicular transport,
73
–78, 76
f
, 77
f
,
78
t
Vesiculase, 1025
Vestibular apparatus,
580
Vestibular (equilibrium) cortex, 436
Vestibular folds (false vocal cords),
804
f
, 807
f
,
808
, 808
f
Vestibular ganglia, 498
t
, 573
f
,
580
Vestibular glands, greater, 1035
f
,
1040
f
,
1041
Vestibular membrane, 574
f
,
575
Vestibular nerve, 498
t
, 571
f
,
580
, 580
f
Vestibular nuclear complex/
vestibular nuclei,
446
,
583
,
583
f
Vestibular nystagmus,
581
Vestibule
of bony labyrinth, 571
f
,
573
, 576
t
nasal,
803
, 804
f
oral, 856
f
,
857
of vagina, 1040
f
, 1041
bulbs of, 1040
f
,
1041
embryologic/fetal
development of, 1055,
1056
f
Vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial
nerve VIII), 444
f
, 445
f
, 446,
493
, 493
f
,
498
t
, 574
f
, 575, 578,
579
f
.
See also
Cochlear nerve;
Vestibular nerve
lesions of, 498
t
Vestibulospinal tract, 469
f
,
473
, 473
t
Viagra, 1027
Vibrissae (nose hairs),
803
Villi
arachnoid,
459
, 459
f
chorionic,
1072
, 1073
f
, 1074
f
testing (chronic villus
sampling),
1103
–1104,
1104
f
in small intestine,
876
–877, 876
f
Viral infection, obesity and, 942
b
Viral load, in HIV infection/AIDS,
794
Virchow, Rudolf, 62
Viruses, interferon mechanism
against, 771, 771
f
Viscera/visceral organs,
14
, 18
f
.
See
also
specific organ
musculature of, 342
t
, 343
f
thoracic, arteries of, 729
t
Visceral afferent fibers/nerves, 387,
388
f
, 490
Visceral efferent fibers/nerves, 490
Visceral layer
of glomerular capsule, 959
f
, 960,
964
f
, 965
of serous pericardium (visceral
pericardium/epicardium), 18,
19
f
, 141
f
,
660
,
661
, 661
f
, 665
f
Visceral motor fibers, 490
Visceral (autonomic) motor (VM)
neurons,
468
, 468
f
.
See also
Autonomic nervous system;
Motor (efferent) neurons
Visceral motor system, general,
524
.
See also
Autonomic nervous
system
Visceral motor zones (lateral horns),
466
, 467
f
,
529
, 530
f
Visceral muscle,
309
.
See also
Smooth
muscle
innervation of, 511
Visceral pain, 490
Visceral pericardium, 18, 19
f
, 141
f
,
660
,
661
, 661
f
, 665
f
Visceral peritoneum, 18, 141
f
,
852
,
853
f
, 854
f
,
855
, 889
f
Visceral (pulmonary) pleura, 18, 141
f
,
814
f
,
816
Visceral reflex arc,
533
, 533
f
Visceral (autonomic) reflexes,
513
,
533, 533
f
Visceral sensory area, 436
Visceral sensory fibers, 387, 388
f
, 490
Visceral sensory (VS) neurons,
468
, 468
f
,
533
, 533
f
.
See also
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Visceral serosa,
18
, 19
f
Visceroceptors (interoceptors),
484
–485, 485
t
, 486
t
Viscosity (blood), 702, 709
f
Visible light,
553
, 554
f
Visible spectrum,
553
, 554
f
Vision, 545–565.
See also
under
Visual and
Eye
cortical areas in, 434
f
, 436, 565
depth perception and,
564
–565,
564
f
developmental aspects of, 585
focusing of light on retina in,
554–556, 555
f
information/visual processing in
retina and, 561–562, 562
f
, 565
optics and, 553–556, 554
f
, 555
f
,
557
f
pathway to brain and, 563–564,
564
f
photoreceptors/
phototransduction in,
556
563, 558
f
, 559
t
, 560
f
, 561
f
, 562
f
Visual acuity, developmental aspects
of, 585
Visual areas, 434
f
, 436
Visual association area, 434
f
,
436
, 565
Visual (striate) cortex, primary, 434
f
,
436
,
563
, 564
f
, 565
developmental aspects and, 476
Visual fields, 563, 564
f
, 565
Visual pathways, 563–564, 564
f
Visual pigments (photopigments),
558
, 558
f
chemistry of, 559–560, 560
f
light and dark adaptation and,
563
in phototransduction (synthesis/
bleaching/regeneration),
560–561, 560
f
, 561
f
Visual processing, 565
Visual receptor cells.
See
Photoreceptors
Vital capacity,
822
, 822
f
aging affecting, 842
Vital signs,
710
Vitamin(s), 8,
911
–913, 912
t
absorption of, 897
fat-soluble, 46
t
, 897,
912
, 912
t
storage of in liver, 937
t
water-soluble, 897,
912
, 912
t
Vitamin A (retinol), 46
t
, 912, 912
t
deficiency of, night blindness and,
563, 912
t
in vision, 559
Vitamin B
1
(thiamine), 912
t
Vitamin B
2
(riboflavin), 912
t
, 916
Vitamin B
3
(niacin), 912
t
, 916
Vitamin B
5
(pantothenic acid), 912
t
Vitamin B
6
(pyridoxine), 912
t
Vitamin B
9
(folic acid/folacin), 638,
912
t
Vitamin B
12
(cyanocobalamin), 638,
639, 912
t
intrinsic factor and, 639, 870,
897, 912
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 912, 912
t
deficiency of (scurvy),
149
, 912
t
Vitamin D, 46
t
,
898
, 912
t
bone mass and, 193–194
calcium absorption/regulation
and,
898
deficiency of, osteomalacia and
rickets and, 192, 912
t
immune system and, 796
for osteoporosis, 193
parathyroid hormone affecting
activation of, 611, 611
f
, 898
synthesis of in skin, 623, 911
Vitamin E (tocopherol), 46
t
, 912,
912
t
Vitamin K (phylloquinone), 46
t
, 912,
912
t
clotting factor production and,
647, 650
Vitiligo,
172
Vitreous humor, 548
f
,
552
, 552
f
V
O2
max
, aging affecting, 842
Vocal cords
false (vestibular folds), 804
f
, 807
f
,
808
true.
See
Vocal folds
Vocal folds (true vocal cords), 804
f
,
807
f
,
808
, 808
f
inflammation of (laryngitis),
809
voice production and, 808–809
Vocal ligaments,
808
Voice box.
See
Larynx
Voice production, 808–809
Voiding (micturition), 979,
982
, 983
f
,
984–985
Volatile acid,
1006
Volkmann’s (perforating) canals,
181
, 182
f
Volt(s), 396
Voltage, 79,
396
Voltage-gated channel(s), 81,
396
,
396
f
action potential and, 400–401,
403
f
information transfer at chemical
synapse and, 408, 409
f
muscle contraction and, 287
f
, 288,
288
f
, 289
in cardiac muscle, 672, 673
f
Volume–pressure relationships,
pulmonary ventilation and,
817
Voluntary muscle,
138
, 277.
See also
Skeletal muscle(s)
Voluntary nervous system,
387
, 388
f
.
See also
Somatic nervous
system
Vomer, 203
f
, 205
f
, 206
f
,
212
, 214
f
,
217
t
Vomiting (emesis),
874
von Willebrand factor, 646
V (variable) region,
781
, 781
f
v-SNAREs, in exocytosis, 77
f
, 78
Vulva (external genitalia),
1035
,
1035
f
, 1040
f
,
1041
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1057
f
Wallerian degeneration,
491
Walls
of nasal cavity, 213
of orbit, 213, 213
f
Warfarin,
650
Warts, genital,
1054
Water,
8
, 34, 34
f
, 38–39, 39
f
absorption of, in digestion, 898
body, 991, 991
f
.
See also
Body
water; Water balance
exchanges of among fluid
compartments, 993, 993
f
hydrogen bonding and, 34–35,
35
f
intake of, 994, 994–995, 994
f
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