I-58
Index
Uterus, 1035, 1035
f
, 1037
f
,
1038
–1039, 1039
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 532
f
cancer of (endometrial cancer),
1063
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1056
f
pregnancy affecting, 1082, 1082
f
prolapse of,
1038
surgical removal of
(hysterectomy),
1063
vascular supply of, 1037
f
, 1039,
1039
f
Utricle,
573
, 573
f
, 576
t
, 580, 580
f
Utrophin, for muscular dystrophy,
315
Uvea,
549
–551, 549
f
Uvula, 804
f
, 806, 856
f
VAC (vacuum-assisted closure),
149
Vaccines,
780
, 780
f
Vagal tone (heart),
684
Vagal trunks, anterior and posterior,
529
Vagina, 1035, 1035
f
, 1037
f
,
1039
1040, 1040
f
acid mantle of, in body defense,
770
t
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1056
f
Vaginal fornix, 1035
f
,
1040
Vaginal orifice,
1040
, 1040
f
Vaginal process, 1055
Vaginal ring, for contraception,
1090–1091
b
Vagotomy,
543
,
905
Vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), 444
f
,
445
f
, 446, 493
f
,
499
t
,
500
,
528
–529, 528
f
,
569
, 570
f
in food intake regulation, 939,
940
f
in gustatory pathway, 499
t
,
569
,
570
f
injury/paralysis of, 499
t
parasympathetic fibers of, 499
t
,
528
–529, 528
f
resection of (vagotomy),
543
,
905
Vagus nerve stimulator, in seizure
control, 453
Valence shell,
31
, 31
f
Vallate papillae,
568
, 568
f
,
857
, 857
f
Valsalva’s maneuver,
809
Valves.
See
Heart valves; Lymphatic
capillary valves; Venous valves
Valvular heart disease
aging and, 687
incompetence/stenosis, 668, 679
murmurs and, 679
Vanadium, 26
t
Vanilloid receptor, 486
Vaporization, heat of, of water, 38,
945
Variability/variations, anatomical, 14
Variable, in homeostasis,
9
Variable (V) region,
781
, 781
f
Variation, genetic, sexual sources of,
1097–1099, 1097
f
, 1098
f
Varicose veins,
699
pregnancy and, 699, 1083
Varicosities, autonomic nerve fiber,
306
, 511
in smooth muscle,
306
, 306
f
, 308,
511
Vasa recta, 961
f
,
962
as countercurrent exchanger, 973,
974
f
, 975
f
, 976
Vasa vasorum,
693
, 694
f
Vascular anastomoses, 695
f
,
699
Vascular dilation.
See
Vasodilation
Vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF), 745
Vascularity/avascularity
of bone, 136, 137
f
of cartilage, 132
of connective tissue, 127
of epithelial tissue, 118
Vascular layer of eye,
549
–551, 549
f
Vascular permeability, inflammation
and, 767–769, 768
f
Vascular plexus
cutaneous, 151
f
, 155
subpapillary, 151
f
Vascular resistance.
See
Peripheral
(vascular) resistance
Vascular shock,
717
Vascular shunts
in capillary bed, 698, 698
f
in fetal circulation, 1079, 1080
f
occlusion of a±er birth, 1080
f
,
1087
Vascular spasm, in hemostasis,
646
,
646
f
Vascular system,
721
–745.
See also
Blood vessels; Circulation
Vascular tissue.
See
Blood
Vas (ductus) deferens, 1019, 1019
f
,
1020
f
, 1021
f
, 1023
f
,
1024
.
See
also
Ductus (vas) deferens
Vasectomy,
1024
, 1090
b
, 1091
b
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, 868
t
,
872
Vasoconstriction,
693
, 714
f
blood pressure and, 539, 705,
705
f
, 706
f
, 707, 708
f
, 709
f
, 713,
1002
f
heat promotion and, 945–946,
946
f
in hemostasis, 646, 646
f
Raynaud’s disease and, 539
venous return and, 704, 705
f
Vasodilation,
693
, 714
f
blood pressure regulation and,
706, 706
f
, 713
heat loss and, 163, 946
f
, 947
in inflammation, 767–769, 768
f
Vasomotion,
716
Vasomotor center, 447, 538, 705
blood pressure control and, 705,
706, 706
f
, 709
f
Vasomotor fibers,
536
,
693
,
705
blood pressure and, 536
vasoactivity and,
693
,
705
Vasomotor (sympathetic) tone,
536
–537,
705
, 709
f
Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone/
ADH),
599
–601,
600
, 600
f
,
602
t
,
707
, 995, 996
f
.
See also
Antidiuretic hormone
Vasovagal (neurocardiogenic)
syncope,
543
Vastus muscles, 380
t
intermedius, 364
f
,
366
t
, 381
f
lateralis, 326
f
, 364
f
,
365
t
, 381
f
medialis, 326
f
, 364
f
,
365
t
, 381
f
Vault, cranial, 201
Veins,
693
, 694
f
, 695
f
, 696
t
, 698–699.
See also
specific named vein
blood flow velocity and, 712, 712
f
blood pressure in, 703–704, 703
f
,
704
f
blood volume in, 699, 699
f
constriction of, venous return
and, 704, 705
f
dilation of, blood pressure
regulation and, 706, 706
f
pulmonary,
662
, 722
f
,
722
–723
t
,
814
f
,
816
structure of, 694
f
, 696
t
systemic, 721, 736–737
f
, 736
t
valves in, 694
f
,
699
varicose,
699
pregnancy and, 699, 1083
Vellus hair,
159
Venae cavae, 699, 736–737
f
, 736
t
blood flow velocity and, 712
f
blood pressure in, 703
f
inferior,
662
, 663–665
f
, 669
f
,
736–737
f
,
736
t
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
superior,
662
, 663–665
f
, 669
f
,
736–737
f
,
736
t
Venereal disease (VD), 1053–1054
Venoconstriction, venous return and,
704, 705
f
Venodilation, blood pressure
regulation and, 706, 706
f
Venous anastomoses,
699
Venous blood pressure, 703–704,
703
f
, 704
f
varicose veins and, 699
Venous palmar arches, deep and
superficial, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Venous plexuses, 715
Venous reserve, 828
Venous return,
682
, 705
f
muscular and respiratory pumps/
sympathetic venoconstriction
and,
704
, 704
f
, 705
f
stroke volume and,
682
, 682
f
,
704, 705
f
Venous sinuses,
699
dural,
459
, 460
f
, 699, 721, 736–
737
f
,
738
t
scleral, 548
f
,
552
, 552
f
splenic (splenic sinusoids), 757
f
,
758
Venous system, 698–699.
See also
Veins
Venous valves, 694
f
,
699
Ventilation, 826
alveolar,
823
, 823
t
blood pH and, 1006
minute,
823
, 823
t
pulmonary.
See
Breathing;
Pulmonary ventilation
Ventilation-perfusion coupling,
826–827, 827
f
Ventral (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
Anterior
Ventral body cavity,
14
–19, 18
f
membranes of, 18, 19
f
, 141
f
, 142
Ventral corticospinal tract, 469
f
, 472
f
,
473
t
Ventral (anterior) funiculi, 467
f
,
468
Ventral (anterior) horns, 431
f
, 439
f
,
466
, 467
f
, 468
f
Ventral (anterior) median fissure,
466
, 467
f
Ventral mesentery, 853, 853
f
Ventral posterolateral nuclei, 441,
442
f
Ventral ramus/rami, 502
f
,
503
brachial plexus, 504
f
, 505, 505
t
cranial plexus, 503
f
, 503
t
lumbar plexus, 507
f
, 507
t
sacral plexus, 508
f
, 509
t
in thorax, 509
Ventral respiratory group,
834
, 834
f
.
See also
Medullary respiratory
centers
Ventral reticulospinal tract, 473
t
Ventral root(s),
466
, 467
f
, 468
f
,
501
,
502
f
brachial plexus, 504
f
,
505
, 505
t
lumbar plexus, 507
f
, 507
t
Ventral rootlets, 466, 502
f
Ventral spinocerebellar tract,
469
,
469
f
, 471
t
Ventral (anterior) spinothalamic
tracts,
469
, 469
f
, 471
t
Ventral tegmental area (VTA), 418
b
Ventral white commissure, 469
f
Ventricles
of brain, 429, 429
f
,
430
, 431
f
of heart, 659,
662
, 663–665
f
, 668,
669
f
, 670
f
development of, 686, 686
f
Ventricular ejection phase, 680
f
, 681
Ventricular fibrillation, 676, 679
f
Ventricular filling, 680–681, 680
f
Ventricular septal defect, 687
f
Ventricular systole, 680
f
, 681
Ventricular tachycardia,
691
Ventromedial nucleus, 442
f
food intake regulation and, 939,
940
f
Venules, 693, 695
f
, 696
t
,
698
blood flow velocity and, 712
f
blood pressure in, 703
f
blood volume in, 699
f
postcapillary, 695
f
,
698
, 698
f
Vermis,
447
, 448
f
Vernix caseosa, 167
Vertebrae, 200
f
,
218
, 218
f
, 219–220
f
,
220
f
, 222
f
cervical,
218
, 218
f
, 221, 221
f
, 222
f
,
223
t
compression fractures of, in
osteoporosis, 192, 245
lumbar,
218
, 218
f
, 222, 222
f
, 223
t
regional characteristics of, 221–
224, 221
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
, 224
f
structure of, 220–221, 220
f
thoracic,
218
, 218
f
, 221–222, 222
f
,
223
t
Vertebral arch,
220
, 220
f
Vertebral arteries, 725
f
, 726
f
,
726
727
t
, 727
f
, 728
f
, 729
f
Vertebral (medial) border of scapula,
228
previous page 1262 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 1264 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off