Index
I-57
Tumor suppressor genes (anti-
oncogenes),
145
b
UV radiation affecting, 164
Tunic(s)
of alimentary canal organs,
854–855, 854
f
of blood vessels, 693, 694
f
Tunica albuginea
of ovary,
1036
, 1036
f
of testis,
1020
, 1020
f
, 1021
f
,
1023
f
Tunica externa (tunica adventitia),
693
, 694
f
in veins, 694
f
, 698
Tunica intima,
693
, 694
f
in atherosclerosis, 700
b
Tunica media,
693
, 694
f
in veins, 694
f
, 698
Tunica vaginalis,
1020
, 1020
f
, 1021
f
,
1055
Turbulent flow, 702
Turner’s syndrome, 1054
T wave,
677
–678, 677
f
, 678
f
Twins
fraternal, 1047
identical, 1047
Twitch, muscle,
293
–294, 295
f
Two-neuron chain, 525
Two-point discrimination test,
489
Tympanic cavity (middle ear),
20
,
208, 571
f
,
572
, 572
f
Tympanic membrane (eardrum),
571
f
,
572
, 572
f
, 577, 577
f
perforated/ruptured, 584
Tympanic region, temporal bone,
208
, 208
f
Type I cells, alveolar,
811
, 813
f
Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes
mellitus, 620,
624
–625
b
, 794,
948
Type I (immediate/acute)
hypersensitivity,
795
, 795
f
Type II cells, alveolar,
811
, 813
f
Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent)
diabetes mellitus, 620,
625
b
,
948
Type II (cytotoxic) hypersensitivity,
796
Type III (immune complex)
hypersensitivity,
796
Type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity,
796
Type A blood, 651, 652
t
, 653
f
Type AB blood, 651, 652
t
, 653
f
Type A daughter cells,
1029
, 1031
f
Type A intercalated cells, 960
hydrogen secretion by, in acid
base balance, 1007, 1008,
1008
f
in potassium regulation, 1003
Type B blood, 651, 652
t
, 653
f
Type B daughter cells,
1029
, 1031
f
Type B intercalated cells, 960
bicarbonate secretion by, 1009
Type O blood, 651, 652
t
, 653
f
Tyrosine/tyrosinase
in melanin production, 156
in thyroid hormone synthesis,
608–609, 608
f
Tyrosine kinase, as insulin receptor,
595, 619
Ubiquitins,
110
Ulcer(s)
decubitus (skin),
171
duodenal, 877
esophageal, 863
gastric,
869
, 869
f
peptic,
869
, 869
f
,
905
Ulcerative colitis, 905
Ulna, 200
f
, 230
f
,
231
–232, 231
f
,
233
t
Ulnar artery, 725
f
, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
Ulnar collateral ligament, 266, 266
f
Ulnar nerve, 504
f
, 505
t
,
506
Ulnar notch, 231
f
,
232
Ulnar vein, 737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Ultrasound imaging
(ultrasonography/
sonography),
16
–17
b
,
1094
in stroke evaluation, 475
Ultraviolet radiation, 156
melannocyte/melanin response
to, 156
metabolic functions of skin and,
163
as radiant energy, 24
skin damage/cancer caused by,
156, 164
aging and, 167
melanin in protection from,
152, 156, 162
Umami, 569
Umbilical arteries, 745, 1074
f
,
1079
,
1080
f
, 1087
Umbilical cord, 1073
f
, 1074
f
,
1075
blood vessels in, 1074
f
, 1079,
1080
f
, 1087
Umbilical ligaments, medial, 1080
f
,
1087
Umbilical region,
19
, 20
f
Umbilical vein, 745, 1074
f
,
1079
,
1080
f
, 1087
Umbilicus (navel), 19, 1080
f
Uncinate fits, 570
Unconventional myosin, 88
“Uncouplers,” poisons as, 923
Uncus, 434
f
, 436
Undescended testis (cryptorchidism),
1022, 1057
Unfused (incomplete) tetanus,
294
,
295
f
Uniaxial movement,
256
, 260
f
Unicellular glands, 124
exocrine (mucous/goblet cells),
124
, 125
f
Unipennate fascicle pattern/muscles,
322, 322
f
Unipolar neurons,
393
, 394–395
t
Unitary (visceral) smooth muscle,
309
Universal donor, 652
t
,
653
Universal recipient, 652
t
,
653
Universal solvent (water), 29,
38
, 991
Unsaturated fats,
46
, 908
Upper limbs.
See also
Arm; Forearm;
Hand
arteries of, 725
f
, 728–729
f
, 728
t
bones of, 200
f
, 228–234, 230
f
,
231
f
, 232
f
, 233
t
innervation of, 501
f
, 504
f
,
505
506, 505
t
veins of, 736–737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740–741
t
Upper motor neurons, 469, 472
f
, 512
Upper trunk, brachial plexus, 504
f
,
505
Up-regulation,
595
Uracil (U),
53
, 54
f
Urea, 928
f
,
929
,
979
recycling, 976, 977
f
tubular secretion of, 972, 973
f
Urea cycle,
929
Uremia,
978
Ureter(s), 955, 955
f
,
979
–980, 979
f
,
980
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
Ureteric buds,
983
, 984
f
Ureteric ducts,
983
Urethra, 955, 955
f
,
981
–982, 981
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 536
t
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1056
f
in female, 981, 981
f
, 982, 1035
f
hypospadias and, 984
in male, 981–982, 981
f
, 1019,
1019
f
, 1023
f
,
1024
Urethral folds,
1055
, 1057
f
Urethral glands, 1024
Urethral groove,
1055
, 1057
f
Urethral orifice,
981
, 981
f
, 1019
f
,
1023
f
, 1035
f
, 1055
Urethral sphincters
external,
344
t
, 345
f
,
981
, 981
f
internal,
981
, 981
f
Urethritis, 982, 1053
Urgency, urinary, infection and, 982
Uric acid,
979
in gout, 272
tubular secretion of, 972
Urinalysis,
989
Urinary bladder, 955, 955
f
, 979
f
,
980
–981, 981
f
atonic,
543
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
cancer of,
988
embryologic/fetal development
of, 983, 984
f
, 1056
f
emptying (micturition), 979,
982
,
983
f
, 984–985
infection of (cystitis), 982
Urinary incontinence,
982
, 985,
1083
Urinary retention,
982
Urinary system, 5
f
, 7
f
, 954–989,
955
,
955
f
.
See also
specific structure
and
Kidneys
autonomic nervous system and,
540
b
, 1013
b
cardiovascular system and, 746
b
,
1013
b
case study and, 989
b
congenital abnormalities of, 984
developmental aspects of, 982–
985, 984
f
digestive system and, 900
b
, 1013
b
endocrine system and, 626
b
,
1013
b
homeostatic relationships of, 5
f
,
1013
b
integumentary system and, 168
b
,
1013
b
lymphatic system/immunity and,
761
b
, 1013
b
muscular system and, 314
b
, 1013
b
physiology/functions of, 6, 7
f
pregnancy and, 1083
reproductive system and, 1013
b
,
1059
b
respiratory system and, 843
b
,
1013
b
skeletal system and, 195
b
, 1013
b
Urinary tract infections, 982, 985
Urination (micturition), 979,
982
,
983
f
, 984–985
Urine,
963
, 978–979, 980
t
in body defense, 770
t
chemical composition of, 979,
980
t
concentration/volume regulation
and, 973–977, 974–975
f
, 977
f
formation of, 963–977, 963
f
dilute/concentrated urine and,
976, 977
f
fetal, 983
glomerular filtration in, 963,
963
f
, 964
f
,
965
–968, 965
f
,
967
f
tubular reabsorption in,
963, 963
f
,
968
–972, 969
f
,
970
f
, 971
t
, 973
f
.
See also
Tubular reabsorption
tubular secretion in, 963, 963
f
,
972
, 973
f
.
See also
Tubular
secretion
physical characteristics of,
978–979
transport/storage/elimination of,
979–983, 979
f
, 980
f
, 981
f
water loss in, 955, 994, 994
f
Urine output
low
anuria, 968
oliguria, 995
water loss and, 955, 994, 994
f
Urobilinogen, 638
Urochrome,
978
Urogenital diaphragm,
344
t
, 345
f
,
981, 1023
f
, 1035
f
Urogenital ridges, 983, 984
f
Urogenital sinus,
983
, 984
f
, 1056
f
,
1057
f
Urologist,
989
Usnic acid, for weight loss, 943
b
Uterine arteries,
1039
, 1039
f
ovarian branches of, 1036
Uterine contractions
Braxton Hicks, 1085
in labor, 1085, 1085
f
, 1086
Uterine (menstrual) cycle,
1049
1051, 1050
f
Uterine glands, 1039, 1039
f
Uterine (fallopian) tubes, 1035, 1035
f
,
1037
–1038, 1037
f
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1056
f
fertilization in, 1037, 1071
f
inflammation of (salpingitis),
1063
resection of (tubal ligation),
1090
b
, 1091
b
Uterosacral ligaments, 1035
f
, 1037
f
,
1038
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