I-56
Index
Tongue, 850
f
, 856
f
,
857
, 857
f
muscles of
extrinsic,
332
t
, 333
f
,
857
intrinsic,
332
t
,
857
papillae of,
568
, 568
f
, 857, 857
f
taste buds on, 568, 568
f
“Tongue-tied,” 857
Tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures, 453
Tonicity,
71
–72, 71
f
Tonic receptors,
488
Tonofilaments, 153
Tonsil(s), 756
f
,
759
, 759
f
inflammation of (tonsillitis),
763
lingual,
759
, 759
f
, 804
f
,
806
, 856
f
,
857, 857
f
palatine,
759
, 759
f
, 804
f
,
806
,
856
f
, 857
f
pharyngeal,
759
, 759
f
, 804
f
,
806
tubal,
759
, 804
f
, 806
Tonsillar crypts,
759
Tonsillitis,
763
Tooth.
See
Teeth
Tooth sockets (alveoli), 211,
217
t
, 859
articulation of tooth with
(gomphosis), 250
f
,
251
, 861
Torticollis,
384
Total body water, 991, 991
f
pregnancy and, 1083
Total dead space,
823
Total lung capacity,
822
, 822
f
Total metabolic rate,
942
–944
Touch, discriminative, 469
Touch receptors
tactile/Meissner’s corpuscles, 154,
163, 486
t
,
487
tactile/Merkel discs, 152, 163,
485
t
,
486
Trabeculae
carneae,
662
, 665
f
in intramembranous ossification,
185
f
lymph node,
755
, 756
f
splenic, 757
f
, 758
in spongy bone,
177
, 177
f
, 181–182
Trabecular (spongy) bone, 129
t
,
177
,
177
f
, 178
f
Trace elements, 26
t
Trace minerals, 913, 915
t
Trachea, 802
f
, 804
f
, 805
t
,
809
, 810
f
,
856
f
obstruction of, 809
Tracheal cartilages, 807
f
, 809, 810
f
Trachealis muscle,
809
, 810
f
Tracheoesophageal fistula, 899
Tracheotomy,
848
Trachoma,
590
, 1053
Tract(s),
390
.
See also
specific type
Traction,
198
Transamination, 928
f
, 929, 929
t
Transcellular route, of tubular
reabsorption, 958, 959
f
Transcription, 102,
102
–104, 102
f
,
103
f
, 109
f
Transcription factors, 102, 103
f
Transcytosis, 73, 75, 76
f
Transducin,
561
, 561
f
light and dark adaptation and,
563
Transduction
light (phototransduction),
556
,
560–561, 561
f
in sensory integration, 488
signal, membrane proteins in, 65,
66
f
smell, 567, 567
f
sound, 578–579
taste, 569
vestibular, 580–581, 581
f
Trans face, of Golgi apparatus, 85, 85
f
Trans fats/trans fatty acids,
47
, 908,
909
t
,
938
Transferrin,
637
,
898
erythropoiesis and,
637
, 638
f
Transfer RNA (tRNA), 55,
102
, 109
f
aminoacyl, 104, 105, 106
f
initiator,
105
, 106–107
f
in translation, 104–105, 106–107
f
Transforming growth factor beta
(TGF-β), 790
t
Transfusion (blood), 651–653
blood groups and, 651–652, 652
t
,
653
f
Transfusion reactions,
652
–653
Rh incompatibility and, 652
Transient ischemic attack,
463
Transitional epithelium,
122–124
,
123
f
in ureters, 979, 980
f
Transitional period, of newborn,
1087
Transitional phase, Krebs cycle,
919
,
920
f
Translation, 102, 102
f
,
104
–105, 104
f
,
106–107
f
, 108
f
, 109
f
Translocation, 105, 107
f
Transmembrane proteins, 65, 66
f
Transmission electron microscopy
(TEM), 118
Transplants (organ), 790–792
Transport, membrane.
See
Membrane transport
Transport maximum,
970
Transport medium, water as, 38
Transport proteins, 65, 66
f
Transport vesicles, 73, 76
f
, 78
t
, 85
f
,
87
f
Transposons, 1102
Transpulmonary pressure,
817
, 817
f
,
819
f
Transverse arch of foot,
242
, 242
f
Transverse cerebral fissure,
431
, 432
f
Transverse cervical nerve, 503
f
, 503
t
Transverse colon, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
Transverse costal facets, 222, 222
f
,
223
t
, 226
f
Transverse foramen,
221
, 223
t
Transverse mesocolon, 888
f
, 889
f
Transverse pathways (commissural
fibers),
437
, 438
f
, 468
Transverse perineal muscle
deep,
344
t
, 345
f
superficial,
344
t
, 345
f
Transverse (horizontal) plane/
section,
14
, 15
f
Transverse processes, vertebral, 219
f
,
220
, 220
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
Transverse ridges, in sacrum,
224
,
224
f
Transverse sinuses, 460
f
, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Transversus abdominis muscle, 326
f
,
342
t
, 343
f
Trapezium, 232
f
, 233
t
,
234
Trapezius muscle, 326
f
, 327
f
, 331
f
,
346
t
, 348–349
f
,
348
t
Trapezoid, 232
f
, 233
t
,
234
Trapezoid line, 227
f
, 228
Trastuzumab, 146
b
, 1043
T
Reg
cells.
See
Regulatory T cells
Treponema pallidum,
1053
Tretinoin, 167
Triad(s),
284
, 284
f
, 285
in excitation-contraction
coupling, 289, 290–291
f
Triceps brachii muscle, 326
f
, 327
f
,
349
f
, 351
f
,
353
t
, 358
t
, 359
f
Triceps surae muscle,
373
t
, 381
f
Trichomoniasis,
1054
Trichosiderin, 157
Tricuspid valve,
662
, 665
f
, 666
f
Trigeminal ganglion, 496
t
Trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V),
444
f
, 445,
493
, 493
f
,
496
t
, 528
mandibular division of (cranial
nerve V
3
),
496
t
muscles of mastication
supplied by, 332
t
maxillary division of (cranial
nerve V
2
),
496
t
ophthalmic division of (cranial
nerve V
1
),
496
t
Trigeminal neuralgia (tic
douloureux), 496
t
Trigger zone, 391, 394
t
Triglycerides,
45
–47, 45
f
, 46
t
, 893
f
,
895, 895
f
, 908
in absorptive state, 931
f
, 932
metabolism of, 926–927, 927
f
,
929
t
storage of in bone, 177
transport of, 936–937, 936
f
Trigone (bladder),
980
, 981
f
Triiodothyronine (T
3
),
607
, 607
t
.
See
also
±yroid hormone
Tripeptide, 47, 893
f
Triple covalent bond, 33, 33
f
Triplet (nucleotide base),
99
, 109
f
Triplets (microtuble), 89, 90, 90
f
Triquetrum, 232
f
, 233
t
Tritium, 27
f
tRNA.
See
Transfer RNA
Trochanter (bone marking), 179,
180
t
greater and lesser,
238
, 239
f
Trochlea
of eye,
547
, 547
f
of humerus,
230
, 230
f
of talus, 241
f
, 242
Trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV),
444
f
, 445
f
,
493
, 493
f
,
495
t
extrinsic eye muscles supplied by,
547, 547
f
Trochlear notch, 231
f
,
232
Trochlear nuclei, 444
Trophoblast, 1072
f
cellular (cytotrophoblast),
1070
,
1072
f
, 1073
f
syncytial (syncytiotrophoblast),
1070
, 1072
f
, 1073
f
Trophoblast cells,
1067
, 1071
f
, 1072
f
Tropic hormones/tropins,
602
Tropomyosin,
281
, 282
f
in cross bridge cycling, 289
in excitation-contraction
coupling, 291
f
Troponin,
281
, 282
f
, 311
t
in cross bridge cycling, 289
in excitation-contraction
coupling, 291
f
True capillaries,
698
, 698
f
True pelvis, 235,
238
True (vertebrosternal) ribs, 225
f
,
226
,
226
f
True solutions, 29
concentration of, 29–30
True vocal cords (vocal folds), 804
f
,
807
f
,
808
, 808
f
inflammation of (laryngitis),
809
voice production and, 808–809
Truncus arteriosus, 686, 686
f
Trunk(s), brachial plexus, 504
f
, 505
Trunk movements, muscles
controlling, 342
t
, 343
f
extension, 336–338
t
, 339
f
Trunk region
arteries supplying, 725
f
veins of, 736–737
f
Trypsin,
883
, 883
f
, 893
f
, 894
f
,
895
Trypsinogen, 883, 883
f
TSH.
See
±yroid-stimulating
hormone
t-SNAREs, in exocytosis, 77
f
, 78
T tubules,
284
, 310
t
in cardiac muscle, 310
t
, 671, 672
f
in excitation-contraction
coupling, 289, 290–291
f
in skeletal muscle,
284
, 284
f
, 310
t
Tubal ligation, 1090
b
, 1091
b
Tubal tonsils,
759
, 804
f
, 806
Tubercle(s) (bone markings), 180
t
.
See also
specific type
Tuberculosis (TB),
840
–841
skin tests for, 796
Tuberosity (bone marking), 180
t
Tubular glands,
124
, 126
f
Tubular reabsorption, 963, 963
f
,
968
972, 969
f
, 970
f
, 971
t
, 973
f
acid-base balance and, 1006–
1009, 1007
f
of bicarbonate, 973
f
, 1007, 1007
f
of calcium, 1003–1004
fluid balance and, 995, 996
f
of nutrients/water/ions, 969–970,
970
f
, 973
f
of potassium, 970
f
, 973
f
,
1002–1003
reabsorptive capabilities of
tubules/collecting ducts and,
970–972, 971
t
of sodium, 968–969, 970
f
, 973
f
,
999–1000, 1000
f
Tubular secretion, 963, 963
f
,
972
, 973
f
acid-base balance and, 1007,
1007
f
of bicarbonate, 1009
of potassium, 972, 973
f
, 1003
Tubulin(s), 88, 88
f
Tubuloalveolar glands,
124
, 126
f
Tubuloglomerular feedback
mechanism,
966
, 967
f
Tumor.
See
Neoplasm
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), 272,
787, 790
t
in diabetes, 625
b
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