Index
I-55
regenerative capacity of, 119, 144.
See also
Regeneration
repair and, 142–144, 143
f
, 768
f
,
769
structural organization at level
of,
3
, 4
f
Tissue factor (TF/factor III), 647
t
,
648
, 648
f
Tissue fluid.
See
Interstitial (tissue)
fluid
Tissue perfusion, 711–717, 712
f
, 714
f
,
716
f
, 718–719
f
, 720
f
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA),
649
, 701
b
for stroke, 463, 474
Tissue repair, 142–144, 143
f
, 768
f
,
769
first/second intention,
149
Tissue typing, transplantation and,
790
Titin, 51
t
,
281
–282
Titin (elastic) filaments, 280
f
,
281
–282
TLRs.
See
Toll-like receptors
T lymphocytes (T cells),
642
, 643
f
,
754
,
775
, 779
t
, 784, 785
f
,
791
f
activation/differentiation of, 784,
785
f
, 786–787, 787
f
MHC proteins and, 784,
785
f
antigen presentation and, 777,
777
f
, 791
f
in cellular immunity, 765
f
, 784,
785
f
, 787–790, 788
f
, 789
f
,
791
f
cytotoxic, 784, 785
f
,
788
–789,
789
f
, 791
f
, 792
t
education of in thymus, 622
t
, 623,
758, 759, 776
effector roles of, 784, 785
f
, 791
f
helper, 784, 785
f
,
787
–788, 787
f
,
788
f
, 791
f
, 792
t
B cell activation and, 787–788,
788
f
CD8 cell activation and, 788,
788
f
HIV infection and, 793
innate immunity and, 788
in phagocytosis, 766
memory, 777, 784, 785
f
, 791
f
receptors on, 785
f
regulatory, 758, 784, 785
f
,
789
,
792
t
T lymphocyte precursor, 643
f
,
644
Tocopherol (vitamin E), 46
t
, 912,
912
t
Toe(s)
bones of (phalanges), 200
f
, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
interphalangeal joints of, 255
t
muscles controlling movements
of, 370–373
t
, 371
f
, 372
f
,
374–375
f
, 376–377
t
, 377
f
,
379
f
, 380
t
, 381
f
Tolerance
immune.
See also
Self-tolerance
transplantation and, 790
to pain,
489
Toll-like receptors (TLRs),
767
Tone (sound), 576
±yrotropin-releasing hormone
(TRH), 601
f
, 603
t
,
605
, 609
thermoregulation and, 609, 947
±yroxine (T
4
),
607
, 607
t
,
941
.
See
also
±yroid hormone
heart rate and, 684
metabolism and, 607, 607
t
, 936
t
,
941
thermoregulation and, 947
±yroxine-binding globulins (TBGs),
609
Tibia, 200
f
,
239
–241, 240
f
,
243
t
in knee joint, 262, 262–263
f
Tibial arteries
anterior, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
734
t
posterior, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
735
t
pulse at, 710
f
Tibial collateral ligament, 262–263
f
,
263
injuries of, 264, 264
f
Tibialis anterior muscle, 326
f
,
370
t
,
371
f
, 372
f
, 380
t
, 381
f
Tibialis posterior muscle,
373
t
, 375
f
,
380
t
Tibial nerve, 369
t
, 373
t
, 508, 508
f
,
509
, 509
t
Tibial tuberosity, 240
f
,
241
Tibial vein, 737
f
, 744
f
, 744
t
anterior, 737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
posterior, 737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Tibiofemoral joint, 255
t
,
262
, 263.
See
also
Knee joint
Tibiofibular joints, 239, 240
f
, 241, 255
t
inferior, 240
f
, 241, 255
t
superior, 240
f
, 241, 255
t
Tic douloureux (trigeminal
neuralgia), 496
t
Tidal volume,
821
, 822
f
alveolar ventilation rate and, 823,
823
t
Tight junctions,
66
, 67
f
, 118
in blood brain barrier, 462, 697
in capillaries, 697, 697
f
epithelial, 118
in gastric mucosal barrier, 867
of sustenocytes (blood testis
barrier), 1031
f
,
1032
in tubular reabsorption, 968, 969
f
Timing of sound waves, relative, 579
Tin, 26
t
Tinea versicolor, 156
Tinnitus,
584
Tip links, 578, 578
f
Tissue(s), 3, 4
f
,
116
–149, 117
f
.
See
also
specific type
blood flow through (tissue
perfusion), 711–717, 712
f
,
714
f
, 716
f
, 718–719
f
, 720
f
connective, 117
f
,
127
–136, 128
f
,
129
t
, 131–137
f
covering/lining epithelium/
membranes, 118, 140–142,
141
f
developmental aspects of,
144–146, 144
f
epithelial, 117
f
,
118
–126, 119
f
,
120–123
f
, 125
f
, 126
f
muscle, 117
f
,
136
–138, 138–139
f
nervous, 117
f
,
140
, 140
f
preparation of for microscopy,
117–118
±romboembolic disorders,
650
±rombolytic agents, 701
b
±rombophlebitis,
750
±rombopoietin,
645
±romboxane(s), 46
t
±romboxane A
2
, platelet aggregation
and,
647
±rombus (thrombi),
650
atherosclerosis and, 700
b
±umb (pollex),
234
carpometacarpal joint of, 254
t
muscles controlling movement of,
360
t
, 361
f
opposition of,
258
, 259
f
±ymic aplasia, congenital,
800
±ymic corpuscles,
758
, 758
f
±ymic lobules, 758
±ymine (T),
53
, 54
f
±ymopoietin(s), 622
t
,
623
±ymosin(s), 622
t
,
623
±ymulin, 622
t
,
623
±ymus, 592
f
,
623
, 756
f
,
758
–759,
758
f
, 760
failure of development of
(congenital thymic aplasia),
800
hormones produced by, 622
t
, 623
T-cell differentiation/maturation
and, 622
t
, 623, 758, 759, 776
±yrocervical trunk, 727
f
,
727
t
, 728
f
,
729
f
±yroglobulin,
607
, 608, 608
f
, 609
±yrohyoid membrane, 807
f
±yrohyoid muscle,
334
t
, 335
f
±yroid arteries
inferior, 606, 606
f
superior, 606, 606
f
, 726
f
,
726
t
,
727
f
±yroid cartilage,
807
–808, 807
f
±yroid crisis/storm,
630
±yroid follicles, 606
f
,
607
±yroid gland,
606
–610, 606
f
, 607
t
,
608
f
, 609
f
homeostatic imbalances and,
609–610, 609
f
metabolism and, 607, 607
t
, 936
t
±yroid hormone (TH), 607,
607
610, 607
t
, 608
f
, 609
f
age affecting, 623
bone growth and, 186
mechanism of action of, 593, 595
metabolism and, 607, 607
t
, 936
t
,
941–942
thermoregulation and, 607, 607
t
,
947
transport and regulation of, 605,
605
f
, 609
±yroiditis, Hashimoto’s,
800
±yroid-stimulating hormone
(thyrotropin/TSH), 601
f
, 603
t
,
605
, 605
f
, 609
thermoregulation and, 947
in thyroid hormone release, 609
in thyroid hormone synthesis, 608
±yroid storm/crisis,
630
±yroid vein
middle, 738–739
f
superior, 738–739
f
±yrotropic cells,
605
±yrotropin,
605
.
See also
±yroid-
stimulating hormone
±ird ventricle of brain, 429
f
,
430
,
431
f
±irst mechanism,
994
–995, 994
f
±irst/thirst center, hypothalamus in
regulation of, 442, 994–995,
994
f
±oracic aorta,
724
t
, 728
f
, 729
f
±oracic arteries
internal (internal mammary
artery), 727
f
, 728
f
, 729
f
,
729
t
lateral, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
±oracic cage/thorax, 200
f
,
224
–227,
225
f
, 226
f
aging affecting, 245
anatomical relationships of
organs in, 814
f
arteries of, 728–729
f
, 729
t
bones of/bony, 200
f
,
224
–227,
225
f
, 226
f
compliance of wall of, 821
innervation of, 509.
See also
±oracic nerves
muscles of, 326
f
, 340
t
, 341
f
deep (breathing), 340
t
, 341
f
,
818
f
, 819
superficial (arm/scapular
movements), 346–348
t
,
347–349
f
sympathetic pathways to, 531,
532
f
veins of, 740–741
f
, 740–741
t
±oracic cavity,
14
, 18
f
organs in, 814
f
pressure relationships in,
816–817, 817
f
pulmonary ventilation and,
818–820, 818
f
, 819
f
±oracic curvature of spine,
218
,
218
f
, 244
abnormal, 218, 219
f
±oracic duct, 753
f
,
754
±oracic nerves, 465
f
, 501, 501
f
, 509
long, 504
f
, 505
t
±oracic splanchnic nerves, 530
f
,
531, 532
f
±oracic vertebrae,
218
, 218
f
,
221–222, 222
f
, 223
t
±oracic visceral organs, arteries of,
729
t
±oracoacromial artery, 728
f
,
728
t
,
729
f
±oracodorsal nerve, 504
f
±oracolumbar division of
autonomic nervous
system.
See
Sympathetic
(thoracolumbar) division of
autonomic nervous system
±orax wall.
See
±oracic cage/thorax
±oroughfare channel, 695
f
,
698
,
698
f
±ree-dimensional vision (depth
perception),
564
–565
±reshold (anaerobic),
300
±reshold stimulus
for action potential,
401
, 402
all-or-none phenomenon and,
401
–404
for muscle cell,
296
, 296
f
±roat.
See
Pharynx
±rombin,
648
, 648
f
±rombocytopenia,
650
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