I-52
Index
Sublingual duct, 856
f
, 858, 858
f
Sublingual glands, 850
f
,
858
, 858
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
Subluxation, 270
Submandibular duct, 856
f
, 858, 858
f
Submandibular ganglia, 497
t
,
528
,
528
f
Submandibular gland, 850
f
,
858
, 858
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
Submucosa
of alimentary canal, 854
f
,
855
of esophagus, 862
f
, 863
of small intestine, 876
f
, 877
of stomach, 867
f
tracheal,
809
, 810
f
Submucosal nerve plexus, 854
f
,
855
Subpapillary plexus, 151
f
Subpubic angle (pubic arch),
235
,
235
f
, 237
t
Subscapular artery, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
Subscapular fossa, 228, 229
f
Subscapularis muscle,
350
t
, 352
f
,
352
t
, 358
t
Subscapular nerves, 504
f
, 505
t
Substance abuse, 418–419
b
Substance P, 416
t
,
417
in pain perception, 489
Substantia nigra, 441,
444
in memory, 457
f
in Parkinson’s disease, 444, 464
Substrate, 52–53,
52
, 53
f
Substrate level phosphorylation,
916
–917, 916
f
, 917
f
, 919,
924
f
Subthalamic nuclei, 441
Subthreshold stimuli,
296
, 401
Sucking reflex, 899
Sucrase,
892
, 893
f
Sucrose, 43, 44
f
, 892, 893
f
dehydration synthesis of, 42
f
, 43
hydrolysis of, 42
f
Sudden infant death syndrome
(SIDS),
848
Sudoriferous glands.
See
Sweat
(sudoriferous) glands
Sugars, 908, 909
t
.
See also
Carbohydrate(s); Fructose;
Galactose; Glucose; Sucrose
double,
43
, 44
f
, 892, 893
f
simple,
43
, 44
f
,
892
Sulci (sulcus),
431
, 432
f
Sulfate, in plasma/interstitial fluid/
intracellular fluid, 992
f
Sulfur, 26
t
, 915
t
Summation
multiple motor unit
(recruitment),
296
, 296
f
, 304
by postsynaptic neuron,
411
–413,
411
f
, 412
t
spatial, 411
f
,
412
, 412
t
temporal (wave), 411
f
,
412
, 412
t
Sun exposure/sunlight.
See
Ultraviolet radiation
Sunspots, 156
Superficial (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
External
Superficial fascia (hypodermis/
subcutaneous tissue), 130,
151
, 151
f
, 167
Striations,
281
cardiac muscle, 138, 139
f
, 277,
671, 672
f
skeletal muscle, 138, 138
f
, 277,
280
f
,
281
Striatum,
439
, 439
f
Stroke (cerebrovascular accident),
463
diagnosis of, 474–475
Stroke volume,
681
, 704, 705
f
cardiac output and,
681
, 682
f
,
704, 705
f
, 709
f
regulation of, 682–683, 683
f
Stroma,
130
,
754
of lung,
815
reticular tissue forming,
130
,
132
f
,
754
Strong acids,
41
, 1004, 1005
f
Strong bases,
41
, 1004
Structural (fibrous) proteins,
50
, 51
t
S-T segment, 677
f
,
678
Stuart factor (factor X), 647
t
, 648,
648
f
Student’s elbow, 270
Stupor, 453
Stuttering,
848
Sty, 546
Styloglossus muscle,
332
t
, 333
f
Stylohyoid ligaments, 215
Stylohyoid muscle,
334
t
, 335
f
Styloid process
of radius, 231
f
,
232
temporal bone, 204
f
, 206
f
,
208
,
208
f
,
216
t
of ulna, 231
f
,
232
Stylomastoid foramen, 206
f
,
208
,
216
t
, 497
t
Stylopharyngeus, glossopharyngeal
nerve supplying, 499
t
Subacromial bursa, 253
f
, 265
f
Subacute hypersensitivities,
795
–796
Subarachnoid hemorrhage,
463
Subarachnoid space
of brain, 430,
459
, 459
f
spinal, 467
f
Subcapsular sinus,
755
, 756
f
Subclavian arteries, 724
f
, 724
t
, 725
f
,
726
f
, 727
f
, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
le±, 724
f
,
724
t
, 726
f
, 728
f
, 729
f
right, 724
f
,
724
t
, 726
f
, 728
f
, 729
f
upper limb arteries arising from,
728–729
f
, 728
t
Subclavian trunks,
753
, 753
f
Subclavian vein, 736–737
f
,
736
t
,
738–739
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Subclavius muscle,
346
t
, 347
f
nerve to, 504
f
Subcostal arteries, 729
t
Subcostal nerve,
509
Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa, 262
f
,
263, 270
Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis/
superficial fascia), 130,
151
,
151
f
, 167
Subdural hemorrhage,
463
Subdural space
of brain,
459
, 459
f
spinal, 467
f
Subendocardial conducting network
(Purkinje fibers), 675
f
,
676
Subendothelial layer, blood vessel,
693, 694
f
Steroid diabetes, 614
Stigma, 1049
Stimuli,
484
action potential and, 412–413
t
coding, 404, 405
f
threshold/subthreshold,
296
,
296
f
, 401, 402
f
in homeostasis, 9, 9
f
receptor classification by, 484
Stirrup (stapes), 571
f
,
572
, 572
f
, 577
f
Stomach, 850
f
,
864
–874, 865
f
, 867
f
,
873
f
, 874
f
, 885
t
.
See also
under
Gastric
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
digestive processes occurring in,
851
f
, 869–870, 885
t
, 893
f
hormones produced by, 622
t
,
866–867, 868
t
Stomodeum,
898
, 899
f
Stop codon, 105, 107
f
, 109
f
Storage center, pontine, 982, 983
f
Storage function, of bone, 177
Strabismus, 495
t
, 497
t
,
548
–549
Straight arteries, of uterus,
1039
,
1039
f
Straight sinus, 460
f
, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Straight tubule,
1020
, 1021
f
Strain (muscle),
318
Stratified epithelium,
119
, 119
f
,
122–124, 123
f
columnar,
122
–124
cuboidal,
122
squamous,
122
, 123
f
transitional,
122–124
, 123
f
Stratum basale (stratum
germinativum),
152
, 153
f
Stratum basalis of endometrium,
1039
, 1039
f
Stratum corneum, 153
f
,
154
, 162
Stratum functionalis of
endometrium,
1039
, 1039
f
lacunae (intervillous spaces) in,
1072
, 1073
f
, 1074
f
Stratum granulosum,
152
, 153
f
Stratum lucidum,
153
Stratum spinosum,
152
, 153
f
Streamlining (laminar flow), 702
Stress/stress response, 614, 616, 617
f
adrenal gland in, 616, 617
f
basal metabolic rate and, 941
glucocorticoids in, 605, 614, 617
f
hypertension and, 711
sympathetic nervous system in,
597, 616
Stress (mechanical), bone remodeling
and, 188, 189
f
Stress incontinence, 982, 1083
Stress proteins, 51
Stress-relaxation response,
309
, 311
t
gastric accommodation and, 873
“Stretch marks,” 155
Stretch receptors
in digestion, 870, 871
f
in food intake regulation, 939, 940
f
in respiration, 835
f
, 838
Stretch reflex,
515
–517,
516
f
Stria(e), 155
vascularis, 574
f
,
575
Striate (visual) cortex, primary, 434
f
,
436
,
563
, 564
f
, 565
Spongy urethra,
981
, 981
f
, 1019
f
,
1023
f
, 1024
Spoon nail, 160
Sprain(s),
269
–270
Squamous cell carcinoma
of lung,
841
of skin,
164
, 164
f
Squamous epithelium,
119
, 119
f
simple,
120
, 120
f
stratified,
122
, 123
f
Squamous region
frontal bone, 202, 203
f
temporal bone,
208
, 208
f
, 244
f
Squamous suture, 201, 201
f
,
202
,
204
f
, 205
f
SRY
gene,
1054
Staging systems, for cancer,
145
b
Stagnant (ischemic) hypoxia,
829
Staining tissue, for microscopy,
117
–118
Stapedius muscle,
572
, 572
f
Stapes (stirrup), 571
f
,
572
, 572
f
, 577
f
Starch, 43, 892, 893
f
, 909
t
.
See also
Carbohydrate(s)
Start codon, 105, 106
f
, 109
f
Startle reflex, 444
Start point, 102
Static equilibrium, 580
Statins, 701
b
, 938
bone density affected by, 193
Stator, ATP synthase, 923, 923
f
Steady state, 80, 930–931, 930
f
Stellate (hepatic) macrophages,
697
,
766,
878
, 880
f
Stem cell(s), 144
bone (osteogenic cells), 178,
179
,
179
f
hematopoietic/pluripotent,
128
,
636
, 636
f
, 642, 643
f
, 645
f
of immune system, 796
olfactory,
566
, 566
f
Stem region (antibody), 781, 781
f
Stenosis, heart valve, 668, 679
Stents, coronary angioplasty and,
701
b
Stercobilin, 638, 638
f
, 882
Stereocilia
of epididymis, 1024
of hair cells, 574
f
, 578, 578
f
, 580,
580
f
, 581
f
Sterilization, for contraception,
1090
b
,
1091
b
Sternal angle, 225
f
,
226
Sternal end of clavicle, 227
f
,
228
Sternoclavicular joint, 254
t
Sternocleidomastoid muscle, 326
f
,
327
f
, 329
f
, 331
f
,
336
t
, 337
f
Sternocostal joint, 254
t
Sternohyoid muscle, 326
f
,
334
t
, 335
f
,
337
f
Sternothyroid muscle,
334
t
, 335
f
,
337
f
Sternum, 200
f
,
225
–226, 225
f
Steroid(s)/steroid hormones, 45
f
,
46
t
,
47
,
593
, 612.
See also
Hormone(s)
anabolic, muscle affected by, 312,
313
b
mechanism of action of, 593, 595,
596
f
sex.
See
Sex hormones
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